LAMINARIA TIMOR SEA, AUSTRALIA
Laminaria /Corallina is located in the Timor Sea, 550km north-west of Darwin. Water depths increase from 50m to 300-400m near Laminaria and 400-500m over Corallina, before deepening to over 2,000m further north in the Timor Trough.
Laminaria was discovered in October 1994, by the Laminaria-1 exploration well. This was followed by appraisal drilling and the acquisition of an extensive 3D seismic survey over Laminaria and most of AC/PO. Corallina, located about 10km north-west of the centre of Laminaria, was discovered by the Corallina-1 exploration well during December 1995.
The initial development plan consisted of three subsea production wells on Laminaria and two production wells on Corallina. Surplus gas is re-injected through a dedicated gas-injection well (East Corallina-1).
Wells consist of vertical, deviated and horizontal well bores, with single chrome completions. These have been designed to allow flow rates producing in excess of 50,000bbl of oil per day.
The development scenario is based on an FPSO, comprising a barge-type steel hull with an oil storage capacity of some 225,000m3 (1.4 million bbl). The steel hull has a ballast tank fully protecting the cargo tanks from external impact and a single-skin bottom shelf.
The hull is designed to last for 60 years (with fatigue) and the FPSO is designed to last 20 years, including planned maintenance.
The hull contract was awarded to Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) of South Korea in September 1996, and the contract was subsequently assigned to the FPSO consortium Kvaerner-SBM (KSC) in January 1997.
The production facilities consist of hydrocarbon separation, stabilisation and testing, and are designed to handle a maximum oil production rate of 27,000m3/day (170,000bbl per day). The stabilised exported product will have a maximum C4 content of 4.0% vol, with a corresponding RVP of approximately 8psia. In addition, facilities are provided for produced water treatment, gas compression, gas lift, power generation, water cooling and fiscal metering. A stabilisation column is required to reduce LPG content and to improve crude value.
The wellstream from the turret is routed through two first-stage phases to a test separator, for metering/calibration purposes. The 8,000m3/day (50,000bbl/stream/day) test separator is designed to achieve oil/water/gas separation consistent with that of the first-stage separators.
A swivel stack, mounted above the manifold decks, transfers fluids and electric power/signals across the rotational interface between the turret and the FPSO. This swivel stack is made up of a number of toroidal swivels for production, gas lift, gas injection and a pipe swivel for well-test service. Separate utility and electrical swivels will also be installed. Provision for future production/water injection (if required) has been accommodated in the swivel stack.
The FPSO is permanently moored, on location, by an internal turret mooring system located at the front end of the FPSO.
The mooring system employs nine catenary chain/wire anchor legs in a 3x3 configuration and is anchored to the seabed by suction-installed piles. Mooring loads are transferred from the FPSO hull through a large three-race roller, bearing into the turret structure and then to the anchor legs. Piles and anchor legs were installed at the offshore location prior to the arrival of the FPSO at the field.
The subsea layout comprises two main drilling centres, as well as a separate gas-disposal well. The Laminaria central four-slot manifold and the Corallina two-slot manifold are tied back to the FPSO via 10in production flowlines. The subsea facilities are controlled by an electro-hydraulic system.
Contract for the design, procurement, construction and installation of the subsea facilities was awarded to Coflexip Stena Offshore - JP Kenny (CSK) joint venture in October 1996.
Lifting the pre-assembled units (PAUs) onto the Northern Endeavour at the Sembawang shipyard, in Singapore.
Fabrication of the PAUs at United Construction, Freemantle.
Lower turret at Noell Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Lifting the turret gantry structure onto the Northern Endeavour at Sembawang.
FPSO mooring piles.
Northern Endeavour en route to the Timor Sea. Clearly visible is the debutaniser column, behind the forward internal turret.
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