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La'o Hamutuk writes U.N. Security Council
La'o Hamutuk hakerek karta ba Konsellu Seguransa ONU

UN more aware of problems, needs to address them.
ONU hatene liu problema sira, tenke hasoru sira.

22 February 2010

Link to Printable PDF version of this letter in English or Tetum.

The following day, Amnesty International wrote to the Security Council about justice.


Dear Distinguished Members of the United Nations Security Council:

The Timor-Leste Institute for Development Monitoring and Analysis (La’o Hamutuk) is a local civil society organization which has monitored and analyzed the mandates and activities of the United Nations in Timor-Leste since 2000, during four UN Missions. We frequently meet with UN officials and write to the Security Council, especially about the still unfulfilled promise by the international community to end impunity for crimes against humanity committed during the illegal Indonesian occupation between 1975 and 1999.

We received the most recent Secretary-General’s report on UNMIT (S/2010/85) only a few days ago and would like to share initial observations before your open debate tomorrow. We welcome the chance to discuss these issues.

La’o Hamutuk participated in two meetings with the UN Technical Assessment Mission (TAM) in January, and we are glad to see some of our comments and others from civil society reflected in the Secretary-General’s report. We have not been allowed to see the TAM report, which we hope contains fewer reservations and qualifications than the S-G’s report.

The Secretary-General’s current report is more comprehensive and honest than the previous one (S/2009/504) which, as La’o Hamutuk wrote you last October, “left out essential facts, context and responsibilities.” We appreciate that the current report includes facts, observations and recommendations which may be uncomfortable for the United Nations and/or Timor-Leste’s Government. Unfortunately, the comfort of Indonesian officials remains undisturbed; the report’s 40 pages do not contain a single reference to Indonesia’s brutal, illegal, 24-year occupation which wreaked havoc on Timor-Leste.

This report includes less self-censorship, euphemisms, passive voice and third-party attribution than other S-G reports since 2007. We hope that this indicates that UNMIT’s new leadership is ready to grapple with Timor-Leste’s situation more effectively.

Historical amnesia pervades this report, as if Timor-Leste first appeared on the UN agenda in 2006 (for example, para. 33). In fact, many of the current problems in the police and military sectors stem from decisions made during UNTAET and from the way the UN trained the police and handed over responsibilities in 2000-2004. More fundamentally, the reason for UN involvement in Timor-Leste stems from the Indonesian invasion 35 years ago and the international failure to back up Security Council and General Assembly Resolutions. In a sense, UN responsibility for Timor-Leste since 1999 grows out of failures from 1975-1999; renewed attention since 2006 is an attempt to redress mistakes made in 1999-2005. If UNMIT and the Security Council do not learn from this history, the United Nations may lose Timor-Leste as a “poster child,” but the people who live here will endure far more severe hardships.

The remainder of this letter discusses a few areas where the Secretary-General’s report does not adequately address current context and future needs of Timor-Leste. Many of these areas, including public views on justice, the Maternus Bere case, the Justice System Needs Assessment, CAVR and CoE recommendations for the international community, the inadequacy of dialogue to prevent conflict, democratic governance, and economic sustainability, are discussed in depth in the letter and addendum La’o Hamutuk provided to the Security Council on 20 October 2009, and we encourage you to refer to those documents, as we will not reiterate their information.

Justice for past serious crimes

La’o Hamutuk has written at length about the continuing obligation of the United Nations and the international community to act, and not only preach, to end impunity for crimes against humanity and other serious crimes committed as part of Indonesia’s occupation here. We will not repeat those comments here, except to recall that many Indonesian, international and Timorese bodies, including the 2000 KPP-HAM and UN COI, 2005 CAVR, and 2005 Commission of Experts, recommended an international tribunal if other measures fail to end impunity (paras. 9 and 81).

Continuing impunity has grave implications not only for the justice sector, but also for future stability, accountability, peace, reconciliation, democracy and Constitutional rule of law in Timor-Leste; it is not only about addressing past crimes. As of now, impunity is a reality, not a “perception” (para. 24), and the UN commitment to prevent impunity cannot be implemented by reiteration (para. 29) or “good offices” (para. 25) solely within this country.

We appreciate the discussion (para. 11) of some recent events undercutting accountability, and encourage UNMIT to be more outspoken and effective in opposing actions which further propagate the climate of impunity (para 87) for domestic violence and other crimes, which will weaken the justice system in a vicious circle leading to lawlessness and anarchy.

The UNMIT Serious Crimes Investigations Team (SCIT) has no prosecutorial or judicial component, and its scope is limited to the final 10 months of the 24-year illegal occupation. As of 15 January, SCIT had completed investigations of 110 of its list of 396 cases from 1999, up from 89 as of 31 August 2009.[1] At this rate, it will take until October 2014 to get through the SCIT’s list, and several centuries to investigate the great majority of crimes which occurred from 1975 to 1998.

In a 2 February 2010 letter to the Security Council, the Timor-Leste National Alliance for an International Tribunal and other organizations suggested additions to SCIT’s activities, which must be accompanied by the necessary resources and political will. We hope that these will be incorporated into the revised UNMIT mandate. They would begin to reverse the direction from impunity toward accountability:

  • Establish a mechanism during the UNMIT mission which will lay the groundwork for the eventual creation an International Tribunal.

  • Expand the mandate of the Serious Crimes Investigation Team (SCIT) to include some of the most grievous crimes committed prior to 1999, such as the 1975 invasion, 1983 Kraras Massacre, 1991 Santa Cruz Massacre, and others.

  • Give SCIT the authority and sufficient resources to prepare and publish formal indictments for cases they have investigated.

Police and law enforcement

During the last few weeks, Timor-Leste officials and media have told citizens to be afraid of “ninjas” and their supporters who, according to police, military and political leaders, are spreading violence and terror among local communities. The Government is using this alleged danger, which appears wildly exaggerated,[2] to justify escalating police and military operations in local communities, often accompanied by human rights violations and implications of “guilt by association” against groups critical of the government. This phenomenon, which emerged since the 20 January cut-off for the Secretary-General’s report, threatens to undermine the rule of law, human rights (see para. 9), and democratic processes, and we hope that UNMIT will work privately and publicly to make certain that the activities of security forces here do not exceed their constitutional mandates of ensuring democratic legality and defense against external threats.

The increasing militarization of PNTL (all partially described in paragraphs 9, 26, 46-49 and elsewhere) is partially due to the military models of security presented by PKF, ISF, GNR and others. The “perceptions of the ‘militarization’ of PNTL” (paragraph 26) are indeed a concern for the future. These perceptions result from a deliberate campaign in the media and elsewhere by the PNTL Commander and others to portray the police as soldiers combating an undefined enemy force, rather than enforcing the written law and pursuing law-breakers.

This message is reinforced when UNPOL’s commander describes the principal role of police “to assure and to maintain public order,” rather than to enforce the law. This perspective, which is an unfortunate reminder of the justifications given by authorities between 1975 and 1999 for human rights violations by Indonesian police and soldiers in Timor-Leste, is echoed when the S-G’s Report recommends training in riot control (para. 48) and a “nationwide crowd control response capability” (para. 68). While other parts of the Report appropriately emphasize human rights and respect for law, we believe that the United Nations and other international assistance must exemplify and teach police that their role is to support citizens’ rights under law (including the right not to be a victim of crime), rather than to intimidate people into quiescence .

We appreciate the Secretary-General’s honest discussion of problems relating to language, training and UNMIT police background (paras. 43-53), and we encourage the Security Council to find ways to deal with them, both for Timor-Leste and for other nations receiving UN police and peacekeepers. While PNTL should be more accountable (para. 51), the same applies to UNPOL, ISF and UN international staff. Although Timor-Leste’s Provedor can theoretically address human rights violations by PNTL, UN or ISF personnel are not accountable to Timor-Leste for their violations (including accidents or negligence). Indeed, the UN has never published UNMIT’s Status of Mission Agreement.

Finally, we are heartened that the UN will finally provide Tetum introduction training for UNMIT police officers (para. 166) so that they can communicate with their PNTL counterparts and local residents.

Lasting security requires sustainable, equitable development

People feel secure when they can live without fear of crime, civil disorder, repression, starvation, disease, and other major disruptions to the lives of their families. Although some of these concerns can be addressed with “security forces,” the more difficult and fundamental ones require inclusive, equitable service delivery and economic development. Indeed, if significant numbers of people remain impoverished and alienated -- while a few enjoy the benefits of affluence and power -- no amount of bullying by men and women with guns can provide security.

Although UNMIT is called an “integrated mission,” to date it has prioritized security through intimidation, rather than through social and economic justice. The recent Secretary-General’s report contains more information on the latter challenges than previous reports do, and we encourage further motion in that direction. If poverty, population growth and economic disparities are not effectively addressed, growing social jealousy and class conflict will undermine the work of dialogue groups and reconciliation programs, further diminishing the security of people’s lives (see para. 28).

Timor-Leste suffers an unfortunate coincidence of circumstances which makes it difficult to provide genuine security. It is a young, post-conflict, post-colonial, impoverished, traumatized, non-renewable-resource-dependent nation. UNMIT and UN agencies have experience with each of these conditions, but that expertise has not been used effectively in Timor-Leste. If the underlying goal of UN engagement here for the past decade, including UNMIT, has been to prevent this country from “failing” or relapsing into violent conflict, this wider range of issues needs more attention, particular those which have an impact on long-range social and economic development.

More specifically, the Secretary-General’s report does not mention that 98% of Timor-Leste’s state revenues come from extracting and selling oil and gas, and that these revenues could cease in less than 15 years. This dependency on non-renewable resources is the highest in the world, made more dangerous by the lack of effective efforts by government or international agencies to develop the non-oil economy. During 2009, Timor-Leste imported $280 million worth of merchandise while exporting about $8 million (98% of which was from selling coffee), a mammoth trade deficit enabled by transient oil revenues.

Oil revenues may have bought peace in the short term (paras. 14, 118 and 127), but what will happen when the money runs out? We urge UNMIT and UN agencies to provide increased assistance and advocacy in areas such as sustainable development, intergenerational equity, macroeconomic analysis and long-term planning. In particular, the Government and international financial institutions exaggerate the strength of the minuscule non-oil economy, and the UN could help policy-makers understand the real situation.

In the same way that the UN encourages improved policies on gender equality, human rights, public communication and police practices (e.g. para. 91), it should help strengthen Timor-Leste’s manifestly weak capacity for long-term economic planning and generating sustainable development. Unfortunately, the UN has not done this effectively to date. Although the current report indicates awareness of this need (paras. 118, 130, 151, 172), more attention should be paid to solutions.

During the reporting period, the government overspent the Estimated Sustainable Income from the Petroleum Fund for the first time in the country’s history. The government plans a budget rectification in a few months which will spend even more, and is likely to authorize loans which will have to be repaid after oil revenues have declined. Although the S-G’s report correctly identifies the pending revision of the Petroleum Fund Law (incorrectly called the “Oil Law” in para. 118) as requiring sound advice, many other pending legislative actions involve decisions which could facilitate or endanger long-term economic development and stability.

We sadly concur with the Secretary-General’s pessimistic assessment of primary and secondary education (paras. 125-126) and its criticality to Timor-Leste’s future development, especially as oil revenues decline. We hope that the proposed actions (para. 133) will be effective in helping the government and donors to address this crucial need.

Training local UN staff in resume-writing (para. 166) will only help if there are jobs after UNMIT leaves. In a similar way, youth employment programs (paras. 101, 115, 121-122) serve a short-term need, but if they later become unemployed adults with children of their own, poverty and insecurity will increase.

We support the report’s finding (para. 129) that “The socio-economic challenges facing Timor-Leste make a case for expanded United Nations activities to help the Government address long-term development challenges,” although the details (paras. 130-137) focus more on short-term emergency response than long-term development.

Democratic governance

The S-G’s report fails to convey the seriousness of current risks to democratic, Constitutional governance and separation of powers. For example, the vote on the motion to censure the Government over the Maternus Bere case (para. 4) fell strictly along party lines, even though some AMP deputies privately believed that the Prime Minister should not have transgressed the Constitution. Similarly, the Parliament rejected the critical recommendations of Committee C on the 2010 State Budget (para. 4), approving it in a vote also defined by party allegiances.

In several places (paras. 23, 58, 139) the report discusses the importance and current inadequacy of media and civil society in ensuring governmental accountability and encouraging democratically-based policies. We agree, and hope that UNMIT can find more effective ways to strengthen the capability and magnify the voices of ordinary citizens, including Dili-based NGOs and people throughout the country. The media suffers from structural flaws which prevent effective, independent, investigative journalism. Many years of training by development partners (para. 141) have failed to improve this situation, and we encourage the UN to explore these issues more deeply, helping to strengthen media and civil society to bring information to and pressure on Timorese and international institutions, in addition to conveying institutional messages to the public (para. 100).

We share the Secretary-General’s wish that the Provedor be important in strengthening human rights (para. 86), enhancing accountability (para. 99) and other areas, and we appreciate the support that the UN has given to this office over the past five years. However, the unpleasant reality is that the Provedor is not taken seriously by other state institutions. The term of office of the Provedor expired in June 2009, and Parliament has not chosen a successor, even though the law requires that one be elected within 30 days.

As the report acknowledges (para. 102) corruption is a real and growing problem in Timor-Leste, and we are proud that La’o Hamutuk board member Adérito de Jesus Soares was sworn in today as Timor-Leste’s first Anti-Corruption Commissioner. Nevertheless, preventing opportunities for corruption, especially by strengthening laws, oversight and accountability within and between institutions entrusted with state power and resources, is more effective in the long run than punishing corruptors (para. 102).

We agree that the High Tax and Audit Court should be appointed (para. 103).

We urge UNMIT to practice more transparency and local content in procurement and hiring to set a good example for Timor-Leste. In addition, efforts should be made to increase the 9.7% of the UNMIT budget (paras. 137 and 170) which enters the local economy.[3] During the past decade, many international consultants, advisors, “volunteers” and staff have advanced their careers and bank accounts while working “on” Timor-Leste; it is only fair that Timor-Leste’s people also benefit from this money.

As the integrated UN presence in Timor-Leste reduces its focus on police and “security” over the next two years, we encourage you to help Timor-Leste’s people and government overcome the historical and economic handicaps inflicted on this nation at birth, and to find ways to use its human and natural resources to benefit current and future generations. UNMIT will probably end in 2012, but 60,000 Timorese children will be born between now and then. Oil revenues from Bayu-Undan will end while they are still in secondary school, and they should not have to live in poverty and violence because the current generation of institutions and individuals failed to think about their future.

Thank you for your attention to our letter and our country, and we are more than willing to discuss these issues further.

Respeitu ba na’i-ulun sira Membru Konsellu Seguransa Nasaun Unidas:

Institutu Timor-Leste ba Monitor no Analiza Dezenvolvimentu (La’o Hamutuk), nu’udar organizasaun sosiedade sivíl ida lokál nian ne’ebé monitoria no analiza ona mandatu no atividade sira Nasaun Unidas nian iha Timor Leste komesa tinan 2000, durante misaun haat Nasaun Unidas nian. Ami enkontru beibeik ho Ofisial sira Nasaun Unidas nian no hakerek ba Konsellu Seguransa, liuliu kona-ba promesa sira Komunidade Internasionál nian atu hakotu impunidade ba krime hirak hasoru umanidade durante okupasaun ilegál Indonézia nian entre tinan 1975 to’o 1999.

Iha loron hirak liu ba, ami simu ona relatóriu foun liu Sekretáriu Jerál nian kona-ba UNMIT (S/2010/85) no hakarak atu fahe observasaun inisia molok ita-boot sira loke debate aban nian. Ami benvindu ba oportunidade atu diskute kona-ba problema hirak ne’e.

La’o Hamutuk partisipa ona iha soru-mutu rua ho Misaun Asistente Tékniku (MAT/TAM) Nasaun Unidas iha fulan Janeiru, no ami haksolok atu haree ami-nia komentáriu balun no sira seluk hosi sosiedade sivíl ne’ebé reflete iha relatóriu Sekretáriu Jerál Nasaun Unidas nian. Ami seidauk hetan autorizasaun atu haree relatóriu MAT nian, ne’ebé ami espera katak relatoriu MAT iha reservasaun no kualifikasaun menus duke relatóriu Sekretáriu Jerál nian.

Relatóriu Sekretáriu Jerál foin daudaun ne’e komprensivu liu no onestu kompara ho ida ne’ebé liu ba (S/2009/504), ne’ebé halo La’o Hamutuk hakerek ba ita-boot iha fulan Outubru hateten, “relatóriu ne’e hakat liu tiha faktu hirak esensiál nian, kontestu no responsabilidade sira.” Ami apresia katak relatóriu foin daudaun ne’e inklui faktu sira, observasaun no rekomendasaun hirak ne’ebé parese halo Nasaun Unidas no/ka governu Timor-Leste ladún haksolok. Maibé buat ne’ebé triste maka, relaroiu ne’e la book ofisial sira Indonézia nian ida, relatóriu ne’ebé hamutuk pájina 40 ne’e la mensiona buat ida kona-ba Indonézia nia brutalidade, okupasaun ilegál durante tinan 24 nia laran ne’ebé hamosu dezastre boot iha Timor-Leste.

Relatóriu ida ne’e halo ladún defende an rasik, eufemizmu (ko’alia mamar hanesan feto), lian ida pasivu liu no atribuisaun parte terseira nian la hanesan relatóriu sira seluk Sekretáriu Jerál nian durante tinan 2007. Ami espera katak, ida ne’e indika lideransa foun UNMIT prepara-an ona atu foti asaun ba situasaun Timor-Leste nian ho efikás liután.

Amnesia istoria iha relatóriu ne’e nia laran, hanesan ba dala uluk Timor Leste mosu iha ajenda Nasaun Unidas iha tinan 2006 (porezemplu, para.33). Defaktu, problema barak agora ne’e iha setór polisia no militár mai hosi desizaun sira durante tempu UNTAET nian no mai hosi maneira sira Nasaun Unidas fó formasaun ba polisia no transfere responsabilidade sira ne’e iha tinan 2000-2004. Fundamentál liután, razaun envolvimentu Nasaun Unidas iha Timor Leste hahú hosi Invazaun Indonézia iha tinan 35 liubá no fallansu hirak komunidade internasionál atu mantein rezolusaun sira Konsellu Seguransa no Asembleia Jerál Nasaun Unidas nian. Ho ida ne’e, ita bele haree katak, responsabilidade Nasaun Unidas nian ba Timor Leste komesa hosi 1999 mai hosi fallansu sira hahú kedas 1975-1999; hafoun hikas fali atensaun komesa hosi 2006 nu’udar esforsu ida atu hadi’a fila fali sala hirak ne’ebé halo durante tinan 1999-2005. Se UNMIT no Konsellu Seguransa la aprende hosi istória ida ne’e, Nasaun Unidas bele lakon Timor-Leste hanesan “poster labarik kiik” (Poster ho figura labarik kiik ho isin krekas ko oin triste ne’ebé ema uja hodi hetan osan), maibé ema ne’ebé hela iha ne’e sei lori hela terus oioin.

Parte balun iha karta ida ne’e diskute área sira balun ne’ebé relatóriu Sekretáriu Jerál Nasaun Unidas nian la ho adekuadu tama ba iha kontestu atuál no nesesáriu Timor Leste nian iha futuru. Barak hosi área hirak ne’e mak hanesan públiku nia hanoin kona-ba justisa, kazu Maternus Bere nian, Sistema Justisa ba Asesmentu nesesidade, CAVR no rekomendasaun hirak CoE ba komunidade internasionál, ne’ebé la iha diálogu natoon atu prevene konflitu, governasaun demokrátiku nian, no sustentavel ekonómiku nian, ne’ebé diskute ona kle’an iha karta no aneksu La’o Hamutuk ba Konsellu Seguransa iha loron 20 Outubru 2009 , no ami enkoraja ita-boot sira atu refere ba dokumentu hirak ne’e, tanba ami sei la repete fila fali informasaun hirak ne’e iha ne’e.

Justisa ba krime sériu-sira iha pasadu

La’o Hamutuk hakerek naruk ona kona-ba kontinuasaun obrigasaun Nasaun Unidas no komunidade Internasionál nian atu halo asaun, no la’ós ko’alia hela de’it atu hakotu impunidade ba krime sériu hasoru umanidade no krime sériu sira seluk ne’ebé halo parte hosi Indonézia nia okupasaun . Ami sei repete fali komentáriu sira ne’e iha ne’e, maibe hakarak bolu atensaun fali de’it katak ema Indonézia sira barak, instituisaun sira internasionál no Timorense nian, inklui 2000 KPP-HAM no UN COI (Komisaun Inquerido), CAVR 2005, no Komisaun Peritu 2005, rekomenda tribunál internasionál, sekarik métodu sira seluk la konsege hakotu impunidade (paras. 9 no 81).

Husik impunidade kontinua fó implikasaun grave la’ós iha setór justisa nian de’it, maibé mós ba estabilidade iha futuru, akountabilidade, dame, rekonsiliasaun, demokrasia no fundamentu lei no orden sira iha Timor Leste; ida ne’e la’ós de’it atu trata krime iha pasadu. Hanesan hatudu ohin loron, impunidade realidade ida, la’os “presepsaun” (para. 24), no dedikasaun Nasaun Unidas nian atu prevene impunidade labele hala’o ho repete beibeik de’it (para. 29) ka “iha eskritóriu ida di’ak” (para. 25) ne’ebé iha lemo nasaun ida ne’e.

Ami apresia diskusaun (para. 11) kona-ba eventu balun ne’ebé hamenus akountabilidade no enkoraja UNMIT atu hateten sai maka’as liután no efikás hasoru asaun sira ne’ebé hada’et liután klima impunidade (para. 87) ba violénsia doméstika no krime sira seluk, ne’ebé sei halo fraku sistema justisa iha siklu diabu ida hodi la fiar lei no orden no halo anarkia.

Ekipa Investigasaun Krime Sériu (EIKS/SCIT) hosi UNMIT nian la iha komponente judisiál nian, no ninia área limita de’it ba fulan 10 nia laran ba kazu okupasaun ilegál tinan 24 nia laran. To’o mai iha loron 15 Janeiru, EIKS kompleta ona investigasaun kazu 110 hosi lista 396 kazu sira hosi 1999, no 89 to’o iha fulan 31 Agostu 2009.[1] Ho númeru hanesan ne’e, sei lori tempu too Outubru 2014 atu halo hotu lista EIKS nian, no lori tempu tinan atus ba atus atu investiga krime boot sira ne’ebé akontese hosi 1975 to’o mai iha 1998.

Iha loron 2 Febreiru 2010 karta ba Konsellu Seguransa, Aliansa Nasionál Timor-Leste ba Tribunál Internasionál no organizasaun sira seluk sujere atu aumenta atividade EIKS nian, ne’ebé tenke la’o hamutuk ho apoiu rekursu sira nesesáriu no forsa polítika ida (kemauan politik). Ami espera katak sujestaun ne’e bele reflete ba iha revizaun mandatu UNMIT nian. Sira sei hahú atu lori fila diresaun impunidade ba fali iha akauntabilidade nian:

  • Estabelese mekanizmu ida durante misaun UNMIT ne’ebé sei sai hanesan baze servisu ba kriasaun eventuál sira no Tribunál Internasionál nian.

  • Aumenta mandatu EIKS nian, atu inklui krime hirak ne’ebé grave liu iha tinan 1999, nune’e mós invazaun 1975, masakra Kraras 1983, Santa Cruz 1991 no sira seluk tan.

  • Fó ba EIKS autoridade no rekursu sufisiente atu prepara no publika ho formál akuzasaun ba kazu hirak ne’ebé investiga tiha ona.

Polisia no implementasaun lei

Durante semana hirak liubá, ofisial Timor Leste no média hateten ba sidadaun sira tenke kuidadu ho “ninja sira” no tuir polisia, militár no ulun polítiku na’in sira hatete katak, ninja sira-nia apoiante sira habelar violénsia no teror iha komunidade sira iha lokál. Governu uza alegasaun ida ne’e, no halo ida ne’e sai boot liu tiha[2], atu justifika operasaun sira polisia no militár nian iha komunidade lokál, dala barak akompańa ho violénsia ba direitu umanu no hanoin “buka sala ema hirak ne’ebé asosiadu” ho grupu sira hanoin krítiku ba governu. Fenomena ida ne’e, mosu dezde 20 Janeiru ne’ebé prejudika relatóriu Sekretáriu Jerál, ameasa atu halo fraku orden no lei, direitu umanu (haree para. 9), no prosesu demokrátiku, no ami espera katak UNMIT sei servisu privativamente no publikamente atu asegura atividade sira forsa armada nian iha ne’e la hakat liu fali sira-nia mandatu konstitusionál nian ne’ebé atu asegura legalidade demokrátiku nian no defende hasoru ameasa hosi li’ur.

Aumenta militarizasaun iha PNTL ( sira hotu ne’e balun deskreve ona iha parágrafu 9, 26, 46-49 no iha fatin seluk tan) ne’e loloos halo parte modelu militár seguransa nian ne’ebé mak reprezenta husi PKF, ISF, GNR no seluk tan. “presepsaun kona-ba militarizasaun PNTL” (parágrafu 26) sai hanesan kestaun ida iha futuru. Presepsaun hirak ne’e rezulta husi kampańa média ne’ebé ho intensaun no iha fatin seluk husi komandante PNTL no sira seluk atu hatudu katak polisia hanesan militár funu hasoru forsa inimigu ne’ebé la define loloos, duke hametin lei ne’ebé hakerek ona no buka tuir ema hirak ne’ebé kontra lei.

Mensajen ida ne’e reforsa liután bainhira komandante UNPOL deskreve papél prinsipál polisia “atu asegura no mantein orden públiku nian” , duke reforsa lei. Perspetiva ida ne’e, fó hanoin fali kona-ba justifikasaun ne’ebé autoridade sira fó entre 1975 no 1999 ba violasaun direitu umanu husi polisia no militár Indonézia iha Timor Leste, no ida ne’e mosu iha bainhira Relatóriu Sekretáriu Jerál nian ne’ebé rekomenda formasaun ba iha kontrola kerusuhan (para. 48) no “abilidade nasaun atu kontrola ema barak (para. 68). Bainhira iha parte seluk Relatóriu nian fó atensaun ba direitu umanu ho apropriadu ona, no respeitu ba lei, ami fiar katak Nasaun Unidas no asistente internasionál tenke hatudu ezemplu no hanorin polisia katak sira-nia papél atu fó apoiu ba sidadaun sira-nia direitu tuir lei (inklui direitu atu labele sai vítima ba krime), duke intimida populasaun hodi book-an ladi’ak.

Ami apresia diskusaun onestu Sekretáriu Jerál nian relasaun ho problema lian, formasaun no kapasidade polisia UNMIT nian (paras. 43-53), no ami enkoraja Konsellu Seguransa atu buka dalan sira hodi responde ba problema hirak ne’e, tantu ba Timor Leste no nasaun sira seluk ne’ebé simu polisia no forsa ba pás Nasaun Unidas nian. Bainhira PNTL ezije tenke akountabel liu (para. 51), nune’e tenke ba mós UNPOL, ISF, no funsionáriu Internasionál Nasaun Unidas nian. Mezmu Provedór Timor Leste nian teoriamente bele ko’alia kona-ba violasaun sira husi pesoál PNTL, UN ka ISF la iha akountabilidade ba Timor Leste kona-ba sira-nia violasaun sira (inklui asidente no sira-nia sala hirak sira halo). Loos duni, Nasaun Unidas nunka publika estatutu Akordu Status Misaun UNMIT nian.

Ikus liu, ami-nia laran kontente katak Nasaun Unidas ikus mai fornese formasaun introdusaun Tetum ba ofisial polisia UNMIT nian (para.166) nune’e sira bele komunika ho sira-nia parseiru sira PNTL nian no ema rai-na’in sira.

Seguransa ba tempu naruk presiza dezenvolvimentu sustentavel no ekuitabel

Ema sente seguru bainhira sira bele moris la ho ta’uk ba krime, dezorden sivíl nian, represaun, hamlaha, moras, no barullu boot sira seluk ba sira-nia família sira-nia moris. Maiske, laran todan sira balun bele atua ho “ forsa sira seguransa nian”, buat ne’ebé difisil no fundamentál tebes mak rekere inkluzivu, pelayanan ida ne’ebé hanesan (ekuitabel) no dezenvolvimentu ekonómiku. Loos duni katak, se ema barak mak sei moris hela iha kiak no alienasaun laran – no ema oituan mak hetan ksolok ho sira-nia riku-sain no podér – intimidasaun hosi mane no feto ho kilat labele fornese seguransa.

Maiske UNMIT hakilar “misaun ida integradu”, maibé to’o ohin loron prioridade seguransa ba liu iha intimidasaun, duke liuhusi justisa sosiál no ekonómiku. Relatóriu Sekretáriu-Jerál foin daudaun ne’e, iha liu informasaun sira kona-ba dezafiu sira ikus ne’e lahanesan ho ida ne’ebé liu tiha ona, no ami enkoraja liután mosaun iha diresaun ne’e. Se pobreza, númeru populasaun sa’e beibeik no disparizasaun ekonómiku la responde ho efikás, laran moras sira sosiál nian konflitu klase sei hamenus tiha servisu ba diálogu grupu no programa rekonsiliasaun, liután hamenus seguransa moris ema nian (haree para.28).

Timor Leste sofre koinsidente sirkumtansia sira ne’ebé ladún favorese atu fornese seguransa ida di’ak. Timor Leste hanesan nasaun ida foun, foin mak sai hosi konflitu, kiak, traumatizadu, nasaun ne’ebé depende ba rekursu ida ne’ebé labele hafoun fali. UNMIT no ajénsia sira Nasaun Unidas nian iha ona esperiénsia ho kondisaun sira hanesan ne’e, maibé matenek sira ne’e sidauk uza ho efikás iha Timor Leste. Se objetivu Nasaun Unidas iha dekade ida liubá, inklui UNMIT tau atensaun ba asuntu hirak ne’e, bele prevene nasaun hosi monu ka fila fali ba konflitu violénsia, problema hirak ne’ebé mosu presiza liután atensaun, liuliu problema hirak ne’ebé iha impaktu ba dezenvolvimentu sosiál no ekonómiku iha tempu naruk.

Espesífiku liu tan, relatóriu Sekretáriu Jerál la mensiona katak 98% rendimentu estadu nian hetan hosi mina no gás no rendimentu sira ne’e bele hotu iha tinan 15 nia laran. Nudar nasaun ida ne’ebé nia dependénsia ba rekursu sira ne’ebé labele hafoun fali aas liu iha mundu, bele sai perigu boot liután ho esforsu sira husi governu ka ajénsia internasionál sira ne’ebé la efikás atu dezenvolve ekonomia ida la’ós hosi mina nian. Durante tinan 2009, Timor Leste importa $280 millaun hodi sosa sasaen sira tama mai no esporta $8 millaun (98% hosi fa’an kafé), osan hirak ne’ebé uza ba hodi sosa sasaen hosi liur ne’e hosi rendimentu mina ne’ebé labele hafoun fali.

Rendimentu hosi mina parese bele sosa dame iha tempu badak (paras. 14, 118 no 127), maibé saida mak sei akontese bainhira osan ne’e hotu? Ami husu ba UNMIT no ajénsia sira Nasaun Unidas nian atu tulun hasa’e asisténsia no advokasia iha área sira hanesan dezenvolvimentu sustentabel, ekuidade entre-jerasaun agora no jerasaun sira iha futuru, analiza makroo-ekonómiku no planu ba tempu naruk nian. Partikularmente, governu no instituisaun finanseiru sira internasionál nian haboot tan esforsu hodi haforsa ekonomia ki’ik sira la’ós mai hosi mina, no Nasaun Unidas bele ajuda makaer ukun sira atu kompriende situasaun reál nian.

Ho dalan hanesan ne’ebé Nasaun Unidas fó korajen atu hadi’a polítika iha igualdade jéneru, direitu umanu, komunikasaun públiku no pratika sira polisia nian (ezemplu para, 91), tenke mós ajuda hametin kapasidade Timor Leste ne’ebé sei fraku hela ba planu ekonómiku tempu naruk nian no kria dezenvolvimentu sustentabel nian. Triste liu, to’o ohin loron Nasaun Unidas seidauk halo ida ne’e ho efikás. Maiske relatóriu ikus nian indika konxiénsia ba nesesidade ida ne’e (paras. 118, 130, 151, 172), maibé atensaun tenke ba iha solusaun sira.

Durante períodu relatóriu nian, ba dala uluk iha istória nasaun ida ne’e, governu hasa’e osan liu fali Estimasaun rendimentu ida Sustentável nian hosi Fundu Petroleu. Planu ratifikasaun orsamentu governu nian ne’ebé halo iha fulan hirak nia laran ne’ebé sei hasa’e liután, no ida ne’e atu lori Timor Leste ba deve, ne’ebé ikus mai tenke selu fali depois rendimentu ne’e komesa hotu daudaun ona. Maiske relatóriu Sekretáriu-Jerál nian identifika loos katak revizaun Lei Fundu Petróleu nian pendente hela (maibé laloos hodi temi “Lei Mina nian” (para.118) ne’ebé presiza tan hanoin lesuk ba ida ne’e, asaun pendente lejizlasaun sira seluk envolve desizaun ne’ebé bele fó dalan ka halo perigu ba dezenvolvimentu ekonómiku iha tempu naruk no estabilidade.

Ho laran triste ami aseita ho pessimistik Sekretáriu-Jerál avaliasaun kona-ba edukasaun primária no sekundária nian (paras. 125-126) no ninia perigu ba iha futuru Timor Leste nian, liuliu ba rendimentu mińa ne’ebé tuun. Ami espera katak proposta asaun sira sei efikás atu tulun governu Timor Leste no doadór sira atu responde ba nesesidade krusiál ida ne’e.

Formasaun ba funsionáriu lokál Nasaun Unidas iha hakerek kurikulum vitae ne’ebé uja hodi halo aplikasaun ba servisu (para. 166) sei bele tulun se iha servisu ruma depois UNMIT husik hela sira. Iha dalan ne’ebé hanesan, programa empregu foin-sa’e nian (paras. 101, 115, 121-122) atu responde ba nesesidade badak nian de’it, maibé depois sira sai dezempregu ho oan barak, kiak no inseguransa sei aumenta.

Ami apoiu rezultadu relatóriu (para.129) katak “dezafiu ekonómiku ne’ebé Timor Leste hasoru bele sai hanesan razaun atu Nasaun Unidas hanaruk ninia atividade hodi tulun governu atu responde ba dezafiu sira tempu naruk nian,” maiske ninia detalle (paras. 130-137) fokus liu atu responde ba emerjénsia tempu badak duke dezenvolvimentu ba tempu naruk nian.

Governasaun demokrátiku

Relatóriu Sekretáriu-Jerál falla hato’o seriedade risku sira agora nian ba governasaun demokrátiku, governasaun Konstitusionál no separasaun podér sira. Ezemplu, vota ba mosaun sensura ba governu kona-ba kazu Maternus Bere (para.4) ne’ebé inkilina liubá partidu polítiku nian, maiske adjuntu balun hosi AMP nian privativamente fiar katak Primeiru Ministru la tenke hakaat liu Konstituisaun. Hanesan mós, Parlamentu rejeita rekomendasaun sira krítiku hosi Komisaun C kona-ba Orsamentu Jerál Estadu nian 2010 (para.4), aprova ho votu, bele haree momoos katak inkilina liu ba partidu.

Iha fatin balun (paras. 23, 58, 139) relatóriu diskute kona-ba importánsia no média no sosiedade sivíl agora daudaun ne’e ladún forsa atu asegura akountabilidade governasaun nian no enkoraja polítika (kebijakan) sira ne’ebé bazeia ba demokrasia. Ami aseita, no espera UMNIT bele hetan dalan ida ne’ebé efikás atu haberan kapasidade no haboot lian sidadaun ordináriu sira-nia, inklui NGO sira iha Dili no populasaun sira iha Timor-Leste laran tomak. Média sofre husi estrutura ida seidauk kompletu, ne’ebé prevene tiha efikás, independénsia, investigasaun jornalizmu nian. Tinan barak hetan ona formasaun hosi dezenvolvimentu parseiru sira (para.141), maibé la konsege hadi’a situasaun ida ne’e, no ami enkoraja Nasaun Unidas atu haree kle’an liután, tulun atu haberan média no sosiedade sivíl atu lori informasaun ba no lori presaun ba Instituisaun Timorense no internasionál nian, no tan atu hato’o mensajen sira ba públiku (para.100).

Ami konkorda esperansa Sekretáriu-Jerál nian katak Provedór halo papél importante atu hametin direitu umanu (para.86), hasa’e akountabilidade (para. 99) no área sira seluk, no ami apresia apoiu Nasaun Unidas ne’ebe fornese ona eskritóriu ida iha tinan lima liubá. Maiske nune’e, realidade ne’ebé ladún di’ak mak instituisaun sira seluk estadu nian la iha seriedade ba Provedór. Termu eskritóriu provedór nian hotu iha Juńu 2009, no Parlamentu seidauk hili fali susesór, maiske lei haruka katak tenke hili fali iha loron 30 nia laran.

Hanesan iha relatóriu ne’e rekońese katak (para.102) korrupsaun ne’e realidade ida no problema ida moris daudaun iha Timor Leste, no ami orgullu katak membru ida hosi Konsellu La’o Hamutuk nian, Sr. Aderito de Jesus Soares, toma de pose ohin hanesan Komisáriu primeiru ba Anti Korrupsaun Timor Leste nian. Pelumenus, bele prevene oportunidade ba korrupsaun, liuliu bele hametin lei sira, fallansu no akountabilidade iha instituisaun ida nia laran no entre instituisaun sira kesi ho ba podér estadu nian no rekursu sira, bele efikás liután iha tempu naruk duke kastigu korruptor sira (para. 102).

Ami konkorda katak Tribunál Superíor Administrativu, Fiskal no Konta nian tenke harii ona (para.103).

Ami ezije ba UNMIT atu pratika liu transparensia no purkuramentu iha kontestu lokál no estabelese ezemplu ida di’ak ba Timor-Leste. Atu aumenta tan, esforsu tenke halo duni atu hasa’e 9.7% orsamentu UNMIT nian (paras. 137 no 170) ba iha ekonomia lokál.[3] Iha tinan sanulu liu ba, konsultan, asesór no "voluntáriu" sira no funsionáriu internasionál nian barak mak hadi’a sira-nia karreira servisu no sira-nia konta bankária nian bainhira servisu “iha” Timor-Leste; ida ne’e sei justu kuandu ema Timor-Leste bele hetan mós benefísiu hosi osan ne’e.

Prezensa misaun Nasaun Unidas iha Timor-Leste ne’ebé integradu hamenus ninia fokus iha polisia no “seguransa” iha tinan rua ne’e nia laran, ami enkoraja ba ita-boot atu tulun povu no governu Timor Leste hasees tiha susar sira ne’ebé istorikamente no ekonómiku teri netik ba iha moris nasaun ida ne’e, no buka dalan sira atu uza rekursu ema no natural nian atu fó benefísiu ba jerasaun agora no aban bainrua nian. UNMIT dala ruma sei remata iha tinan 2012, maibé labarik oan sira hamutuk 60,000 sei moris iha períodu entre agora no tuir mai. Rendimentu mina hosi Bayu-Undan sei hotu iha bainhira sira sei tuur hela iha eskola sekundária, no sira la tenke moris iha pobreza no violénsia laran tanba individuál no instituisaun sira agora ne’e falla (la konsege) hanoin kona-ba sira-nia futuru.

Obrigadu ba ita-boot sira nia atensaun ba ami-nia karta no ami-nia nasaun, no ami sei kontente tebes atu dada-lia liután kona-ba asuntu hirak ne’e.


Ines Martins, Mariano Ferreira, Juvinal Dias, Charles Scheiner
La’o Hamutuk Justice Team

Cc: SRSG Ameerah Haq and others at UNMIT, media, RDTL officials, others.

Ho respeitu,

Ines Martins, Mariano Ferreira, Juvinal Dias, Charles Scheiner
Tim Justisa La’o Hamutuk nian

Cc: SRSG Ameerah Haq and no sira seluk iha UNMIT, média, ofisial sira RDTL nian.


[1] Current figures from paragraphs 10 and 76 of S/2010/85; previous ones from paragraph 32 of S/2009/504.

[2] As paragraph 6 of S/2010/85 describes, violent crime is actually decreasing here.

[3] La’o Hamutuk estimates that only $550 million of the $5,200 million in international assistance allocated to Timor-Leste from mid-1999 to mid-2009 entered the local economy.


[1] Figura ikus nian hosi parágrafu 10 no 76 hosi S/2010/85; pasadu nian hosi parágrafu 32 hosi S/2009/504.

[2] Hanesan iha parágrafu 6 hosi S/2010/85 deskreve katak, krime violénsia loloos menus daudaun ona iha ne’e.

[3] La’o Hamutuk halo eistimasaun iha de’it $550 miliaun hosi $5,200 miliaun ba asistensia internasional aloka ba Timor Leste hosi mediu-1999 to mediu-2009 ba iha ekonomia lokál nian


The Timor-Leste Institute for Development Monitoring and Analysis (La’o Hamutuk)
Institutu Timor-Leste ba Analiza no Monitor ba Dezenvolvimentu
Rua D. Alberto Ricardo, Bebora, Dili, Timor-Leste
P.O. Box 340, Dili, Timor-Leste
Tel: +670-3321040 or +670-77234330
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