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Climate Change and Timor-Leste
Mudansa Klimatika no Timor-Leste

18 Marsu 2010.  Updated 11 October 2010




IPCC – An organization of scientists from different countries who work under the UNFCCC to do research, analysis, reports and provide recommendation to UNFCCC regarding climate change.

Kyoto ProtocolInternational agreement that regulates action against climate change under the UNFCCC, which will valid until 2012.

Climate Justice – the principle of climate justice is that developed countries who cause more climate change should take the larger responsibility to heal the climate and pay for negative impacts faced by developing countries.

Carbon Trading – A mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol for developed countries to reduce their emissions, by purchasing emission credits from other countries through the Clean Development Mechanism.

UNFCCC in Copenhagen – Meeting of parties to the UNFCCC to decide mechanism against climate change after Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012.

Atmosphere - A layer of gases surrounding the earth. It composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen, but also greenhouse gases like CO2, CH4, N2O, and water vapor. It protects the earth from direct sunlight, and normal concentration of gases will insure that the seasons run normally.

How human beings change the climate

People changed the climate by changing the concentration of greenhouse gases in atmosphere. The concentration increased because of the release of greenhouse gases from the earth, usually by burning fossil fuels. This increase causes the atmosphere to absorb more heat from the sun and blocked the sun's heat from being re-radiated from the earth to the sky, making the earth hotter. This situation is called the greenhouse gas effect (Click on the picture to see how the greenhouse effect works).

One of the biggest greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide (CO2). It is trapped in organic materials in plants, sea and soil.  When people cut down trees, burnt fossil fuels and destroyed marine plants, they released CO2 to atmosphere. But when they plant trees, don't use fossil fuels, and take care of marine plants, they are saving carbon in solid form and protecting the climate.


In December 2009, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) conference will take place in Copenhagen, Denmark, with participants from all over the world. This conference will decide on a new mechanism to revise or replace the Kyoto Protocol which governs global actions on this issue, and will expire in 2012.

We believe that it’s important for the government of Timor-Leste to share Timor-Leste's position in relation to Copenhagen with civil society and the public, and to listen to feedback about this issue.

Scientists who work with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) define climate change as any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. On the other hand, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), calls it any changes caused directly or indirectly by human activity that alters the global atmosphere, adding to natural climate variability observed over time. Link to IPCC 2007 Synthesis Report (3.6 MB) to see their findings and recommendations.

The biggest issue being debated today is how all countries can continue to work to repair the global climate after the Kyoto Protocol. In the UNFCCC process, the Kyoto Protocol is the mechanism which regulates how each country should take actions related to climate change. This Protocol obliges developed countries to reduce their emissions to the levels agreed in the Protocol. It also gives them an avenue to achieve their emissions reduction target through the Clean Development Mechanism.

In developing countries, action to reduce the negative impacts of climate change is called adaptation. Adaptation is important for countries which are victims of climate change or the countries which are the most vulnerable to climate change. According to Kyoto Protocol, developed countries have more responsibility to support adaptation in non developed countries. But of course, adaptation alone is not enough because it does not address the causes of climate change.

The best way to get back to normal climate is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions all over the world. Every country should reduce its emissions, change their development model to climate friendly development, and change life styles which result in large emissions.

Timor-Leste is a new country which has just started its development in all sectors. It still has a big chance to start a development model which does not damage the climate, and could be a model for other countries.

La’o Hamutuk works on climate change, to disseminate information and monitor developments related to climate change. We continue to look for information, share it and create broad discussion on the issue. Our objective is to help contribute to a climate friendly development in this country.

We continue to receive information on this issue.


IPCC – Organizasaun kompostu husi sientista husi nasaun oi-oin ne’ebé servisu iha Konvensaun Kuadros Nasoens Unidas nia ba Mudansa Klimátika nia okos hodi halo peskija, analiza, produz relatoriu no fo rekomendasaun ba UNFCCC kona ba Mudansa Klimátika.

Protokolu Kyoto Protokolu ida ne’ebé regula nasaun sira kona ba asaun hasoru mudansa klimátika, validu husi 2005 too 2012. 

Justisa Klimátika – Prinsipiu Justisa Klimátika nian katak, nasaun dezenvolvidu sira ne’ebé hasai emisaun makas liu no estraga íklima, tenku simu responsabilidade makas liu atu hadiak fali íklima nomos responsabiliza ba impaktu aat ne’ebé nasaun foin dezenvolve-an an sira simu tanba mudansa klimátika ne’e. 

Carbon Trading – Sistema fan no sosa karbon, ne’ebé nasaun dezenvolvidu sira uja atu bele hatun sira nia emisaun too targetu ne’ebé Protokou Kyoto obriga.

UNFCCC iha Copenhagen – Enkontru entre nasaun sira ne’ebé sai parte ba Konvensaun Nasoens Unidas nian kona ba Mudansa Klimátika ne’ebé sei deside Mekanismu foun atu hasoru mudansa klimátika nian depois de tinan 2012.

Atmosfera – Atmosfera ne’e parte ida iha kalohan ne’ebé haleu mundu ne’e, ne’ebé kompostu husi kompozisaun kimiku oi-oin hanesan Nitrogen, Oxigen, Carbono Dioxida (CO2), Methana (CH4), Nitrous Oxida (N2O), Holocarbon. Atmosfera proteje mundu husi loromatan, no mós asegura katak mundu nia udan, anin, no tempu manas no malirin lao hanesan bai-bain.

Oinsa ema halo mudansa ba iklima?

Ema halo mudansa ba klimátika tanba muda kompozisaun gas estufa iha atmosfera sai makas liu tan liu husi husik gas estufa, hanesan karbon dioksida, makas ba atmosfera. Wainihira kompozisaun gas estufa makas iha atmosfera, loromatan nia manas ne’ebe mai husi loromatan no mos radia husi mundu, la fila ba kalohan maibe hela iha atmosfera no fo manas makas ba mundu. Situasaun ne’e hanaran efeitu gas estufa. (Liga ba hare pintura kona ba efeitu gas estufa)

Karbondioksida ne’e hela iha aihoris sira, iha tasi no mos iha rai leten. Wainhira ema tesi ai ka sunu ai, sunu fatuk anar metan ka minarai no wainhira ema estraga aihoris sira iha tasi laran, ema husik karbon ba kalohan. Wainihira ema kuda ai barak, zelu iha polu norte la naben, la uja fossil fuel hanesan minarai, kuidadu aihoris iha tasi, ema salva karbon no la estraga iklima.


Iha fulan Dezembru 2009 sei iha Konferensia UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) iha Kopenhagen nebe partisipa husi nasaun hot-hotu. Iha konferensia nee mak sei deside mekanizmu foun hodi hadiak ka troka Protokolu Kyoto nebe durante nee regula aksaun global iha mundu tomak hasoru mudansa klimatika.

Relasiona ho Konferensia UNFCCC nee, ami hanoin importante atu governu Timor-Leste fahe hanoin ho sosiedade sivil no ba publiku, kona ba Timor-Leste nia pozisaun nebe sei lori ba Konferensia nee no mos rona ideas husi ema hotu nebe interese ba asuntu nee.

Sientista sira husi mundu tomak ne’ebé halibur-an iha grupu ida naran Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) nia mahan fo definisaun ba mudansa klimátika nudar Mudansa iha kondisaun íklima nian ne’ebé akontese iha tempu naruk nia laran, tanba mudansa natural ka tanba ema nia hahalok. Nasoens Unidas nia Kuadrou Konvensaun ba Mudansa Klimátika dehan katak Mudansa íklima ne’e mak mudansa iha íklima ne’ebé iha relasaun direta ka indereta ho ema nia hahalok ne’ebé muda kompozisaun atmosfera nian aumenta tan ho mudansa ne’ebé akontese naturalmente. Liga ba IPCC nia Relatoriu Sintesis 2007 (Ingles, 3.6MB) atu hatene kona ba deskobrimentu no rekomendasaun IPCC nian.

Asuntu boot ne’ebé oras ne’e nasaun iha mundu tomak diskute maka oinsa nasaun hot-hotu bele kontribui ba hadiak fali íklima. Iha prosesu ne’ebé halao iha Konvensaun Kuadro Nasoens Unidas nian ba Mudansa Klimátika nia okos, mak mosu ona mekanismu hanesan Protokolu Kyoto ne’ebé atu regula nasaun sira nia asaun kona ba mudansa klimátika. Protokolu ne’e, fo ona obrigasaun ba nasaun dezenvolvidu sira atu hatun sira nia emisaun tuir standar ne’ebé mak determina ona. Protokolu Kyoto mos loke dalan ba nasaun dezenvolvidu sira atu hatun sira nia emisaun liu husi pratika Clean Development Mechanism.

Iha nasaun ne’ebé foin dezenvolve-an ne’ebé hetan impaktu makas liu husi mudansa klimátika ne’e asaun hasoru mudansa klimátika ne’e hanaran adaptasaun. Adaptasaun importante ba nasaun sira ne’ebé sai vitima ka iha possibilidade sai vitima. Tuir Protokolu Kyoto nasaun dezenvolvidu sira iha responsabilidade atu suporta adaptasaun iha nasaun foin dezenvolve-an sira. Maski nune’e, impaktu husi mudansa klimátika ne’e boot tebes, no asaun adaptasaun deit la too atu rezolve problema.

Dalan diak liu hasoru mudansa klimátika mak hatun emisaun gas estufa iha mundu tomak. Nasaun ida-idak tenki hatun nia emisaun, muda sira nia modelu dezenvolvimentu ba dezenvolvimentu ida ne’ebé diak ba íklima, no muda estilu moris ne’ebé konsumu energia barak liu no hasai emisaun barak liu. Timor-Leste, nasaun ida ne’ebé foin hari no foin hahu nia dezenvolvimentu iha seitor hot-hotu. Timor-Leste sei iha oportunidade bo’ot atu pratika dezenvolvimentu ida ne’ebé diak ba íklima. Timor-Leste iha oportunidade atu hahu modelu dezenvolvimentu foun ida ne’ebé bele sai ezemplu ba mundu tomak.

La’o Hamutuk halao servisu ba Mudansa Klimátika, hodi fahe informasaun no tau matan ba dezenvolvimentu relasiona ho Mudansa Klimátika. Ami kontinua nafatin halibur informasaun, fahe no kria diskusaun kona ba asuntu ne’e hodi kontribui ba polítika Dezenvolvimentu Timor-Leste nian ne’ebé respeita ba íklima.

Ami simu nafatin informasaun husi parte hotu kona ba asuntu ne’e.

Public Meeting on Timor-Leste Participation in global Action against Climate Change

On October 19, 2009, La’o Hamutuk, as part of Working Group on Climate Change, invited representatives from the Government of Timor-Leste, UNDP and the Working Group on Climate Change to speak in a public meeting on Timor-Leste's participation in Global Action on Climate Change, in relation to the UNFCCC conference in Copenhagen.

Minister of Economic and Development Joăo Gonçalves presented the Government Position regarding the Copenhagen conference. According to him, Timor-Leste's overall position is to support IPCC recommendations about emission reductions, and Timor-Leste will continue to insist that developed countries take responsibility to repair climate and to support developing countries.

UNDP Timor-Leste Program Officer for Poverty Reduction and Environmental Unit, Expedito Belo talked about the UN's support for climate change programs in Timor-Leste. As he said, UN has supported climate change programs since this issue has appeared in international debate. In Timor-Leste, UNDP manages funding from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) to climate change programs  in Timor-Leste.

From the Working Group on Climate Change, Maximus Tahu addressed how climate change has been a critical problem to this world, but actions against it has not yet produced satisfactory results. According to him, as a country in the process of building much of its infrastructure and services, Timor-Leste has a great opportunity to adopt a sustainable development model that will protect the environment and not destroy the climate.

The Working Group on Climate Change includes NGOs and others interested to work on the climate change issue in Timor-Leste. The group includes people working with organizations working on forestry, sustainable agriculture, policy analysis, social justice, etc. The group is based on the principles that adaptation and mitigation to climate change should be done in ways that respect climate justice principles, human rights and local socio-cultural and economic conditions.

The Climate Justice Now! Network (CJN!) is an international network of civil society organizations and people from who fight for a just solution for climate change. In Copenhagen, CJN! Takes part actively in civil society activities and also the UN conference. Klimaforum Platform.

Enkontru Publiku kona ba Partisipasaun Timor-Leste nian iha Asaun Global Hasoru Mudansa Klimátika

Iha loron 19 Outubro 2009, La’o Hamutuk nudar parte ida husi Grupu Servisu ba Mudansa Klimátika konvida reprezentante husi Governu Timor-Leste, UNDP no mos Grupu Servisu Mudansa Klimátika nian hodi koalia iha Enkontru Publiku kona ba Timor-Leste nia partisipasaun iha asaun global hasoru mudansa klimátika, liu-liu relasiona ho Konferensia Mudansa Klimatika nian iha Copenhagen.

Ministru Ekonomia no Dezenvolvimentu Joăo Gonçalves, aprezenta pozisaun governu nian ba Konferensia sei halao iha Copenhagen. Governu Timor-Leste, nia pojisaun geral mak, suporta rekomendasaun IPCC nian no mos ejize nasaun industrializadu sira atu responsabiliza makas ba hadiak fali íklima.

Program Officer ba Unidade Redusaun Pobreza no Meio Ambiente UNDP Timor-Leste, Expedito Belo koalia kona ba UN nia suporta ba programa Mudansa Klimátika iha Timor-Leste. Tuir nia, UNDP nia suporta ba programa mudansa klimátika, hahu kedas desde inisiu wainhira asuntu ne’e komesa koalia iha forum internasional. Iha Timor-Leste, UNDP mak maneza osan fundu mudansa klimátika nian ne’ebé fo ba Timor-Leste hodi halao nia programa balu relasiona ho mudansa klimátika.

Husi Grupu Servisu ba Mudansa Klimátika nian, Maximus Tahu koalia kona ba Mudansa Klimátika ne’ebé sai dezafiu ba mundu tomak no mekanismu ne’ebé kria atu hasoru mudansa ne’e seidauk fo rezultadu ne’ebé natoon. Tuir nia, mudansa klimátika iha Timor-Leste, tenki hare hanesan oportunidade ida ba nasaun Timor-Leste, atu halao dezenvolvimentu ida ne’ebé diak ba meio ambiente.

Grupu Servisu ba Mudansa Klimátika kompostu husi ONG no ema balu ne’ebé iha interese atu servisu ba asuntu mudansa klimátika iha Timor-Leste. Grupu ne’e kompostu husi organizasaun sira ne’ebé servisu iha area hanesan florestal, agricultura sustentavel, análiza polítika, justisa sosial, nss. Grupu Servisu Mudansa Klimátika kaer ba Prinspiu Grupu Servisu Mudansa Klimatika nian katak adaptasaun no mitigasaun global tenki halao tuir dalan ne’ebé respeita prinsipiu justisa klimátika, respeita direitus umanus no kondisaun sosio-kultural no ekonomiku lokal.

Climate Justice Now! Network (CJN!) (Rede Justisa Klimátika, Agora!), grupu internasional ne’ebe kompostu husi sosiedade sivil husi nasaun barak ne’ebé luta ba rezolusaun ida ne’ebé justu ba Mudansa Klimátika. Iha Kopenhagen, CJN hola parte mos iha aktividade Sociedade Sivil nian no mos Konferensia Nasoens Unidas kona ba mudansa klimátika nian.
Plataforma Klimaforum Sosiedade Sivil nian (mos English).

Juvinal Dias and Inęs Martins from La'o Hamutuk attended the Copenhagen conference in December 2009. After they returned, they discussed the issue with colleagues and at a La'o Hamutuk public meeting. La'o Hamutuk then wrote an open  letter to Timor-Leste's Prime Minister urging him not to sign the Copenhagen Accord. Juvinal Dias no Inęs Martins husi La'o Hamutuk partisipa ona iha konferensia Copenhagen iha fulan Desembru 2009. Depues, sira kolia ho kolega balu no iha Enkontro Publiku La'o Hamutuk nian. Entaun, La'o Hamutuk hakerek karta aberta ba  Primeiru Ministru RDTL rekomenda katak diak liu Timor-Leste rezeita Akordu Copenhagen.
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The Timor-Leste Institute for Development Monitoring and Analysis (La’o Hamutuk)
Institutu Timor-Leste ba Analiza no Monitor ba Dezenvolvimentu
Rua D. Alberto Ricardo, Bebora, Dili, Timor-Leste
P.O. Box 340, Dili, Timor-Leste
Tel: +670-3321040 or +670-77234330
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