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2023 General State Budget
Orsamentu Jerál Estadu ba 2023

Started 1 May 2022.  Updated 26 January 2024.

Link to page on 2022 state budget. Liga ba pájina kona-ba OJE 2022   Link to page on 2024 state budget. Liga ba pájina kona-ba OJE 2024

Contents of this page

On 23 February 2022, the Minister of Finance presented a budgetary calendar to the Council of Ministers. Planning will take place from March to 10 May, when the preparation phase will begin. The seminar "Jornadas Orçamentais" (Budgetary Days) will take place by 30 June. The proposed 2023 General State Budget law will be assessed by the Council of Ministers by 15 September, prior to submission to the National Parliament on 1 October. In May, the Minister published this calendar on his Facebook page, which was revised in September:

  • 23 February 2022: Council of Ministers approves the calendar for General State Budget (OJE) 2023
  • 26 April: Planning seminar
  • 09 May: Council of Ministers approves proposed Major Plan Options Law (see below)
  • 10 May: Government presents proposed Major Plan Options Law to National Parliament
  • 30 May: PN approves the Major Plan Options law
  • 10 June: TLDPM Meeting (Donors’ conference)
  • 30 June: Budget seminar
  • 15 July: Council of Ministers approves disaggregated budget ceilings
  • 20 July: Ministry of Finance distributes Circular on preparing OJE 2023, with disaggregated budget ceilings
  • 17 August: Council of Ministers approves budget allocations for each program
  • 14 September: Council of Ministers approves Proposal of Draft Law OJE 2023
  • 03 October: Government presents Proposed OJE 2023 Law to National Parliament
  • November: Discussion of Proposed OJE 2023 in National Parliament
  • 15 November: Final vote on Proposed OJE 2023 in National Parliament
  • December 2022: Promulgation of the OJE 2023 Law by the President of the Republic
  • December 2022: Publication of the OJE 2023 Law in the Jornal da Repúblika.

Konteúdu pájina ida ne’e

Iha 23 Fevreiru 2022, Ministru Finansas aprezenta kona-ba kalendáriu preparasaun Orsamentu Jerál Estadu nian (OJE) ba tinan finanseiru 2023 nian ba Konsellu Ministrus. Faze planeamentu nian sei hala’o iha fulan-marsu to’o loron 10 fulan-maiu, bainhira hahú faze preparasaun nian. Semináriu “Jornada Orsamentál sira” tenke hala’o to’o loron 30 fulan-juñu. Konsellu Ministrus tenke halo apresiasaun ba projetu proposta Lei OJE tinan 2023 nian to’o loron 15 fulan-setembru, atu aprezenta ba Parlamentu Nasionál iha loron 1 fulan-outubru. Iha fulan Maiu, Ministru publika kalendáriu tuir mai iha Facebook, no revista iha funal Setembru:

  • 23 Fevereiru 2022: Konsellu Ministrus aprova Kalendáriu OJE 2023
  • 26 Abril: Jornada Planeamentu
  • 09 Maiu: Konsellu Ministrus aprova Proposta Projetu Lei das Grandes Opções do Plano (hare iha kraik)
  • 10 Maiu: Governu aprezenta Proposta Projetu Lei das Grandes Opções do Plano ba PN
  • 30 Maiu: PN aprova Lei das Grandes Opções do Plano
  • 10 Juñu: Enkontru TLDPM
  • 30 Juñu: Jornada Orsamentál
  • 15 Jullu: Konsellu Ministrus aprova Tetu Desagregasaun Orsamentu
  • 20 Jullu: Ministériu Finansas fó sai Sirkulár preparasaun OJE 2023 no Distribuisaun Tetu Desagregadu
  • 17 Agostu: Konsellu Ministrus aprova alokasaun orsamentu tuir Programa
  • 14 Setembru: Konsellu Ministrus aprova Proposta Projetu Lei OJE 2023
  • 03 Outubru: Governu aprezenta Proposta Projetu Lei OJE 2023 ba PN
  • Novembru: Diskusaun Proposta OJE 2023 iha PN
  • 15 Novembru: Votasaun Proposta OJE 2023 iha PN
  • Dezembru 2022: Promulgasaun Lei OJE 2023 husi Prezidente Repúblika
  • Dezembru 2022: Publikasaun Lei OJE 2023 iha Jornal da Repúblika.

Major Planning Options Law

On 26 April 2022, the Government hosted a Planning Workshop (Jornadas Planeamentu), opened by the Finance Minister, with presentations on a range of topics. Although the Council of Ministers decided the same day to ask Parliament to add more than a billion dollars to the 2022 budget, this was not mentioned in the presentations and barely hinted at by the speakers. They did, however, announce that the fiscal envelope for the 2023 state budget would $1,797.6 million.

According to the newly-enacted Law No. 2/2022 on the Framework for the General State Budget and Public Financial Management (see here for more details), Government should present a Major Planning Options Law to Parliament by 10 May for Parliament to approve by the end of May. The Ministry of Finance presented the draft to the Council of Ministers, which approved it on 9 May and submitted it to Parliament the next day. Full text of proposed MPO law, with three annexes (Portuguese original).

On 24 May, La'o Hamutuk distributed an open letter to all Members of Parliament with some commentary on the proposed Major Planning Options law, which we summarized in a press release and blog. Our press conference was covered by GMN and RTTL TV, Tatoli, Neon Metin and other media.

On 2 June, Parliament Committee C (Public Finances) issued a report (Portuguese original) critical of some parts of the proposed law, and the Parliamentary plenary began debating the law. After a few amendments, Parliament approved it and sent it to President Jose Ramos-Horta on 8 June, and he promulgated it as Law no. 8/2022 of 15 June.

Lei Grande Opsaun Planu

Iha loron 26 Abril 2022, Governo halo Jornadas Planeamentu, loke husi Ministru Finansas, ho aprezentasaun sira kona-ba tópiku balun.  Maske Konsellu Ministrus deside ona iha loron hanesan atu husu Parlamentu atu retifika OJE 2022 no aumenta liu dolar biliaun ida, aprezentasaun no oradór sira besik la mensiona. Maske nune'e, sira esplika katak envelope fiskál ba OJE 2023 sei mak tokon $1.797,6.

Tuir Lei nu. 2/2022 Enquadramento do Orçamento Geral do Estado e da gestão financeira pública (Port.), (detallu iha ne'e), Governu sei aprezenta proposta Lei Opsaun Prinsipál sira Planu (Lei das Grande Opções do Plano) molok loron 10 Maiu, ne’ebé Parlamentu sei aprova molok fulan Maiu remata. Ministériu Finansas aprezenta proposta lei ba Konsellu Ministrus, ne'ebe aprova iha 9 Maiu, no submete ba Parlamentu Nasional iha loron 10 Maiu. Textu tomak proposta lei GOP, ho anexu tolu (Port.)

Iha loron 24 Maiu, La'o Hamutuk fahe karta aberta ba Deputadu/a hotu iha Parlamentu Nasional ho komentáriu ruma kona-ba proposta Lei Opsaun Prinsipál sira Planu, ne’ebé ami rezume iha komunikadu imprensa ida no blog ida. Ami nia konferénsia imprensa hetan kobertura husi televizaun GMN no RTTL, Tatoli, Neon Metin no media sira seluk.

Iha loron 2 Juñu, Komisaun C (Finansas Publika) iha Parlamentu Nasional fó sai Pareser (Port.) ida ne’ebé kritika parte balun iha proposta Lei Opsaun Prinsipál sira Planu, no plenária Parlamentár hahú debate kona-ba proposta lei ida ne'e. PN halo alterasaun balun, no aprova proposta lei ida ne'e no haruka ba Prezidente José Ramos-Horta iha loron 8 Juñu, no nia promulga ona lei nu. 8/2022 de 15 Juñu.

2023 budget process begins

On 30 June, the Ministry of Finances held its Jornada Orsamental (Budget Journey) workshop for 2023. The consolidated 86-slide presentation (mostly in Tetum) includes sections on Major Planning Options, Timorese Value Chain, Macroeconomic and fiscal information, the evolution of the Petroleum Fund, budget execution and the disaggregation process.

On 18 July, the Council of Ministers approved a 2023 budget ceiling of $3.155 billion for 2023, which includes $1.8 billion for the Central Administration, $1.0 billion for the Veterans' Fund, $0.24 billion for Social Security and $0.12 billion for Oecussi Special Administrative Region. However, the Veteran's fund is a reappropriation of the same money that was appropriated in the rectified 2022 budget, so the total proposed new spending in 2023 will be $2.155 billion.

The following week, the Ministry of Finance produced a detailed Circular (also Portuguese original, with appendices) on the ceilings and preparation of the 2023 State Budget. On September 1, the Ministry released a Pre-Budget Statement 2023 (Including the 2022 Mid-Year Report).

On 14 September, the Council of Ministers approved the budget proposal.

Prosesu Orsamentál ba OJE 2023 hahú

Iha loron 30 Juñu, Ministériu Finansas halo soro mutu Jornada Orsamental ba 2023. Aprezentasaun konsolidadu ho slide 86 diskute Grandes Opções do Plano, Cadeia de Valor Timoriza, Makro Ekonomia no Fiskál, Dezempeñu Fundu Petrolíferu, Progresu Ezekusaun no Despeza Rizides, no Kriteriu Dezagregasaun Tetu Orsamentu 2023.

Iha loron 18 Jullu, Konsellu Ministrus aprova tetu agregadu ba OJE 2023 biliaun $3.155, inklui $1.8 biliaun ba Administrasaun Sentrál, biliaun $1.0 ba Fundu Kombatentes Libertasaun Nasionál (FKLN), biliaun $0.24 ba Orsamentu Seguransa Sosiál no biliaun $0.12 ba RAEOA. Maski nunee, osan ba FKLN mak osan hanesan aloka ona iha 2022, entaun total depeza foun iha proposta OJE 2023 mak biliaun $2.155.

Semana ida tuir mai, Ministériu Finansas prodús Sirkulár detalladu (Port.) kona-ba envelope no prosesu preparasaun ba OJE 2023. Iha loron 1 Setembru, Ministériu Finansas fo sai Pre-Budget Statement 2023 (Including the 2022 Mid-Year Report (Eng.)).

Iha loron 14 Setembru, Konsellu Ministrus aprova proposta OJE ba tinan 2023 (MF FB).

Consideration and approval by National Parliament

The proposed budget (documents below) was submitted to Parliament on 3 October, and forwarded to Committee C (Public Finances) for analysis and reporting. The following day, Parliament established this schedule:
3 OctGovernment submits proposed law for 2023 General State budget and related budget books to National Parliament.
4 OctParliament receives the law, with a technical note prepared by its staff, and forwards it to all the standing committees to prepare sectorial opinions to Committee C for the Report and Opinion, according to the schedule in the rules.
5 OctStanding Committees begin their 15-day period to approve sectorial opinions and send them to Committee C for consolidation
10-18 OctStanding Committees hold public hearings
20 OctDeadline for Standing Committees to send sectorial opinions to Committee C
21-26 OctCommittee C elaborates and reconciles all sectorial reports with the Report and Opinion of Committee C
27 OctReading and approval of Committee C Report and Opinion
7-9 NovPlenary debate and vote on the GSB 2023 in generality
10-17 NovPlenary debate and vote on the GSB 2023 in specifics, including final global vote
18 NovCommittee C approves of the Parliamentary Decree approving the 2023 Budget
21 NovFinal editing of the Decree
22 NovTransmission of the final edit of the Decree approving the Budget to the President of the Republic for promulgation

"Public" Parliamentary hearings have not been widely announced, but we received the agenda for 10 October and 13 October, and Committee C's schedule of hearings for 10-18 October.

On 17 October, La'o Hamutuk delivered a submission to all Deputies in the National Parliament, which we summarized in a press release.  We held a press conference on the 19th, which was reported by RTTL-TV, GMN TV, TVE, Timor Post, Independente, Tatoli, Hatutan, Lafaek News, Lusa and others. SMnewstimor posted a video of the entire 30-minute press conference on Facebook Live.

On 7 November, Parliament began debating the budget proposal in plenary, with a speech by the Prime Minister (Port.) and the reading of the report by the Public Finance Committee (C). Reports from the Economics Committee (D, Port.) and others were annexed to Committee C's report.  On 9 November, Parliament approved the budget in general, with 40 votes in favor, none against, and 24 abstentions. Debate on specifics, including 90 proposed amendments, continued until Parliament approved the entire $3.16 billion budget (with a few small amendments) on 17 November by a vote of 42-21, with 2 abstentions.  The total amount was the same as the Government had proposed, although amendments shifted about $8 million from one expenditure line to another.

The approved budget was sent to President Jose Ramos-Horta for promulgation or veto. News reports indicate that he has asked the Court of Appeals for advice on the Veterans' Fund (FCLN), although the Minister of Finance is optimistic that the President will sign the budget law. La'o Hamutuk wrote the President, asking him to veto the proposed budget law to facilitate deeper discussion.

On 13 December, the Court of Appeal declared that the Veterans' Fund (FCLN) was unconstitutional, as summarized by the President of the Republic. The decision had no immediate effect because the Fund was not yet set up. On 20 December, Parliament deleted this $1 billion line from the 2023 budget, although the President had already promulgated the revised budget law on 15 December. It was published as Law no. 15/2022 of 21 December (Port.)

Konsiderasaun no aprovasaun iha Parlamentu Nasional

OJE ida ne'e haruka ba Parlamentu Nasional (dokumentu sira iha kraik) iha loron 3 Outubru, no meza PN baixa ba Komisaun C (Finansas Públikas). Loron ida tuir mai, Parlamentu estabelese kalendáriu tuir mai:
3 OutGovernu haruka proposta lei Orsamentu Jerál Estadu ba 2023 (PPL de OGE 2023) no livru orsamentais sira ba Parlamentu Nasional.
4 OutAdmissão da PPL de OGE 2023, tendo como referência a nota técnica preparada pelos serviços do PN, se existir. Remessa da PPL a todas as comissões especializadas permanentes para emissão de parecer setorial e à Comissão C para Relatório e Parecer, nos prazos regimentais
5 OutComissões Especializadas Permanentes: Início da contagem de 15 dias para aprovação dos pareceres setoriais e seu envio à Comissão C para consolidação
10-18 OutTodas as Comissões Audições Públicas
20 OutData-limite para o envio de todos os pareceres setoriais à Comissão C
21-26 OutElaboração da conciliação de todos os Relatórios setoriais com o Relatório e Parecer da Comissão C
27 OutLeitura e aprovação do Relatório e Parecer da Comissão C sobre a PPL de OGE2023
7-9 NovPN Debate e votação na generalidade da PPL de OGE2023, pelo Plenário do PN
10-17 NovDebate e votação na especialidade e final global da PPL de OGE2023, pelo Plenário do PN
18 NovComissão C: Aprovação final global do Decreto do PN que aprova o OGE2023 
21 NovRedação Final do Decreto-Lei do PN que aprovou o OGE2023
22 NovEnvio da Redação Final do Decreto-Lei do PN que aprovou o OGE2023 para o Presidente da República para Promulgação

Públiku la hetan informasaun kona-ba audiénsia "públiku" iha Parlamentu, maibé ami hetan ajenda ba loron 10 Outubru, 13 Outubru, no kalendáriu ba Komisaun C ba loron 10-18 Outubru.

Iha loron 17 Outubru, La'o Hamutuk fahe submisaun ida ba Deputadu/a sira hotu iha Parlamentu Nasional, no sumariza iha komunikadu imprensa ida. Iha loron 19 Outubru, ami organiza konferénsia imprensa ne’ebé hetan kobertura iha RTTL-TV, GMN TV, TVE, Timor Post, Independente, Tatoli, Hatutan, Lafaek News, Lusa no media sira seluk. SMnewstimor tau video ida husi konferénsia imprensa tomak (30 minutu) iha Facebook Live.

Iha loron 7 Novembru, Parlamentu Nasional hahú debate iha plenária, ho diskursu husi Primeiru Ministru (Port.) no aprezentasaun paresér husi Komisaun C (Finansas Públikas, Port.). Paresér sira husi Komisaun sira seluk mak aneksu, inklui Komisaun D (Ekonómiku, Port.). Iha loron 9 Novembru, Parlamentu Nasional aprova OJE iha jeneralidade, ho votus a favor 40, kontra 0, no abstensaun 24. Debate iha espesialidade, inklui proposta alterasaun 90, la'o ate Parlamentu aprova OJE biliaun $3.16 final no global (ho alterasaun ki'ik balun) iha loron 17 Novembru ho votus a favor 42, kontra 21, no abstensaun 2. Laiha mudansa iha montante tomak, maibé alterasaun sira muda maizumenus tokon $8 husi liña ida despeza ba liña seluk.

OJE aprovadu haruka ona ba Prezidente Jose Ramos-Horta atu promulga ka veta. Notísia balun indika katak nia husu Tribunal Rekursu atu fó paresér kona-ba Fundu Veteranu, maske Ministru Finansas otimista Prezidente bele promulga OJE 2023. La'o Hamutuk hakerek karta ida ba Prezidente, atu husu atu veta proposta lei OJE atu fasilita diskusaun kle'an liu.

Iha loron 13 Dezembru, Tribunal Rekursu deside katak FCLN viola Konstituisaun, hanesan sumariza husi Presidensia Republika. Tanba osan seidauk transfere, desizaun atu hapara FCLN laiha impaktu kedas. Iha loron 20 Dezembru, Parlamentu elimina liña biliaun $1 ne'e husi OJE 2023, maske Prezidente promulga ona Lei OJE 2023 iha loron 15 Dezembru. Lei OJE 2023 publika ona hanesan Lei nu. 15/2022 de 21 de Dezembru (Port.)

Implementation and execution

Decree-Law 1/2023 (Port.) approved the rules for executing the 2023 budget.

Although the Transparency Portal did not work for months, in early March the Ministry of Finance released a presentation on budget execution for January and February.


On 21 May, voters elected a new Parliament, and the new Government (led by the former opposition) intends to quickly enact a mid-year rectification of the 2023 State Budget, although they promised not to increase the total appropriation in the existing 2023 budget.

The proposed budget rectification was discussed in a "Mini-Budget Review Committee" and approved by the Council of Ministers on 9 August. The rectification will reduce the overall budget by $316 million, including $167m from Central Administration, $113m from Social Security and $36m from RAEOA. It also includes changes to the budgeting process and repeals the excise tax increases enacted with the 2023 budget. The proposed budget law was submitted to Parliament on 10 August, with an explanatory memorandum and budget books.

The Parliament acceded to Government's request to consider the budget rectification with an accelerated process, with hearings on 15-17 August, Committee reports finished by 21 August, plenary debate from 22-25 August and submission to the President for promulgation on 29 August.

Parliament approved the request for urgency on 14 August. La'o Hamutuk and the NGO Forum wrote submissions which were covered in the media. Parliamentary Committees, including Economy and Development (D) and Public Finances (C), issued reports. On 24 August, La'o Hamutuk organized a Round-Table discussion on Challenges and Opportunities facing the new government, as described in this blog (Tetum).

Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão presented (Tetum) the budget proposal to the Parliamentary plenary on 22 August. After three days of debate, Parliament adopted the proposed law with 40 votes in favor, none against, and 20 abstentions, as reported by the Government and Tatoli. After technical corrections, on 25 August Parliament sent the law to President José Ramos-Horta, who promulgated it as Law no. 17/2023 (Port.) on 29 August.

The $1.77 billion revised budget is slightly smaller than the original 2023 budget, and will withdraw $1.21 billion from the Petroleum Fund, $0.13bn less than originally authorized. (Estimated Sustainable Income for 2023 is $0.49bn.)

Implementasaun no ezekusaun

Dekretu-Lei 1/2023 (Port.) aprova regra sira kona-ba implementasaun OJE 2023.

Maske Portal Transparénsia la la'o durante fulan balun, iha fulan Marsu, Ministériu Finansas fó sai aprezentasaun ida kona-ba ezekusaun OJE durante Janeiru no Fevereiru.


Tanba rezultadu husi eleisaun Parlamentár iha loron 21 Maiu kria Parlamentu no Governu foun, sira sei aprezenta kedas Orsamentu Retifikativu atu muda OJE 2023, maibé promete atu la aumenta envelope fiskál.

Proposta Orsamentu Retifikativu diskute iha "Mini Komité Revizasaun Orsamentu" no hetan aprovasaun husi Konsellu Ministrus iha loron 9 Agostu, hanesan Tatoli fó sai. Retifikasaun ne'e sei hamenus despeza total ho valór tokon $316, inklui tokon $167 husi Administrasaun Sentrál, tokon $113 husi Seguransa Sosiál no tokon $36 husi RAEOA. Proposta lei ne'e mós inklui mudansa balun ba prosesu orsamentál no halakon taxa impostu seletivu konsumu ne’ebé aprova ona iha OJE 2023.  Governu submete proposta lei (Port.) ba Parlamentu Nasional iha loron 10 Agostu, ho Exposição de Motivos (Port.) no livru balun.

Governu no Parlamentu konkorda atu debate Orsamentu Retifikativu ho prosesu urjente, ho audiénsia iha loron 15-17 Agostu, relatóriu husi komisaun sira finaliza iha 21 Agostu, debate iha plenária iha 22-25 Agostu, no haruka ba Prezidente atu promulga iha loron 29 Agostu.

Parlamentu aprova pedidu ba urjénsia iha loron 14 Agostu.  La'o Hamutuk no FONGTIL hakerek submisaun rua ne’ebé hetan kobertura iha media. Komisaun Parlamentár sira, inklui Ekonomia no Dezenvolvimentu (D) no Finansas Públiku (C), fó sai paresér sira. Iha loron 24 Agostu, La'o Hamutuk organiza Meza Redonda kona-ba polítika ida di’ak no oportunidade inklui mós dezafiu sira ne’ebé IX Governu sei hasoru ne'ebe diskute iha blog ida ne'e.

Primeiru Ministru Xanana Gusmão aprezenta proposta Orsamentu Retifikativu ba plenária Parlamentu Nasional iha loron 22 Agostu. Hafoin debate loron tolu, Parlamentu aprova ho votus 40 a favor, kontra 0 no abstensaun 20, hanesan fó sai husi Governu no Tatoli. Hafoin korresaun tékniku, iha loron 25 Agostu Parlamentu haruka lei ba Prezidente José Ramos-Horta. Nia promulga hanesan Lei nu. 17/2023 (Port.) iha loron 29 Agostu.

Orsamentu retifikativu ho montante biliaun $1.77 ki'ik uitoan kompara ho OJE 2023 orijinál, no se transfere biliaun $1.21 husi Fundu Petrolíferu, biliaun $0.13 menus OJE orijinál. (Rendimentu Sustentável Estimadu ba tinan 2023 mak biliaun $0.49.)


Graphics below are from the Budget Rectification enacted in August 2023:

Graphics below are proposed Budget Rectification submitted in August 2023:

Graphics below are from the budget as approved by Parliament at the end of 2022, excluding internal Social Security transfers:

Graphics below are from the budget as Government proposed it to Parliament:

Grafiku sira

Gráfiku sira iha kraik husi Orsamentu Retifikativu ne’ebé aprova ona iha Agostu 2023:

Gráfiku sira iha kraik husi proposta Orsamentu Retifikativu ne’ebé Governu haruka ba Parlamentu iha Agostu 2023):

Gráfiku sira iha kraik husi OJE 2023 ne’ebé Parlamentu aprova ona iha 2022, esklui transferénsia internal (Seguransa Sosiál):

Gráfiku sira iha kraik husi proposta OJE ne’ebé Governu proposta ba Parlamentu:

Documents (newest first)

2023 Budget Rectification

2023 State Budget

2023 Major Planning Options

Dokumentu (atuál liu mak uluk)

2023 Orsamentu Retifikativu

2023 Orsamentu Jeral Estadu

2023 Grandes Opções do Plano

2022 budget rectification

State Budget for fiscal year 2022:

Orsamentu retifikativu ba tinan 2022

OJE ba tinan fiskal 2022:

Analysis and commentary (newest first)

Analiza no komentáriu (atuál liu mak uluk)

Links to relevant topics on La'o Hamutuk's websiteLiga ba tópiku sira ne’ebé relevante iha website La’o Hamutuk


The Timor-Leste Institute for Development Monitoring and Analysis (La’o Hamutuk)
Institutu Timor-Leste ba Analiza no Monitor ba Dezenvolvimentu
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P.O. Box 340, Dili, Timor-Leste
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