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Sunrise LNG in Timor-Leste: Dreams, Realities and Challenges

A Report by La’o Hamutuk
Timor-Leste Institute for Reconstruction Monitoring and Analysis

January 2008

Appendix 8: References

Link to Index and Table of Contents

The following is an alphabetical list (by author) which includes the documents referenced in the text of this report [indicated by number in square brackets at the point of reference] as well as a few other materials which provide relevant information. We have obtained electronic copies of most of them; click on the underlined title of the document to access a local PDF file or web page. All materials are in English except where otherwise noted.

For those with difficult internet access, the CD-ROM edition of this report, including all the references, is available from La'o Hamutuk.

Additional information, background, supporting documents, etc. are available on the La'o Hamutuk website, which includes an index of oil-related topics, as well as on the OilWeb CD-ROM published by La’o Hamutuk.

[1]     ABC News (2007). “Minister upbeat about Greater Sunrise prospects” 30 May 2007. Accessed 23 October 2007 at

[2]     Abrash, Abigail (2002). “Human Rights Abuses by Freeport in Indonesia” published by RFK Memorial Center for Human Rights, July 2002. Accessed 24 October 2007 here.

[3]     ACIL Consulting (2002). “Development Options for Timor Sea Gas: Analysis of Implications for Australia” Consultancy report to the Northern Territory Government, February 2002.

[4]     ADB (2004). “Power Sector Development Plan for Timor-Leste” Pacific Department, Asian Development Bank, September 2004, citing figures from the Sector Investment Plan.

[5]     Adorjan, A. S. (1991). Heat Transfer in LNG Engineering. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, U.S.A.

[6]     AFP (2003). “Norway’s Statoil gets new boss amid corruption scandal” 1 November 2003, from

[7]     Amaral, Demetrio, Executive Director of HABURAS. Personal interview, 12 May 2006.

[8]     Andrews, Edmund L. (2006). “U.S. Royalty Plan to Give Windfall to Oil CompaniesThe New York Times, 14 February 2006

[9]     Andrews, Edmund L. (2007). “U.S. to Raise Royalty Rates for Oil and Gas Leases in the GulfThe New York Times, 10 January 2007

[10]    Atlantic LNG (2005). “Train Four Starts Up” press statement accessed December 2007 from

[11]    Atlantic LNG (2007). Accessed December 2007 at

[12]    Audley-Charles, M. G. (1968). “The Geology of Portuguese Timor.” Memoirs of the Geological Society of London N. 4.

[13]    Bechtel Corporation. Image on website courtesy of ConocoPhillips Darwin LNG. Accessed 24 October 2007 here.

[14]    BP (2007). “Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2007.” Includes text, excel workbook and Slide show. Accessed December 2007 here.

[15]    California Energy Commission. “Liquefied Natural Gas Safety” Accessed 15 October 2007 at

[16]    Choudry, Aziz (2003). “Blood, Oil, Guns and Bullets” Znet. Accessed 24 October 2007 at

[17]    Cockcroft, Peter (2007). “Integrated development of Greater Sunrise Gas: The Timor-Leste National Interest Case” Presentation at roundtable discussion in Dili, 13 April 2007.

[18]    ConocoPhillips (2007). “The Darwin LNG Plant – Pioneering Aeroderivative Turbines for LNG Refrigeration Service” Presentation to GE Oil and Gas Conference, Florence Italy, 29-30 January 2007. Accessed 29 October 2007 here.

[19]    de Sousa, Pedro, Director of RDTL Department of Land and Property. Personal interview, May 2006.

[20]    East Timor Land Law Program (2004). “Report on Research Findings, Policy Options and Recommendations for a Law on Land Rights and Land Restitution” Written by ARD, with support from CNIC, the RDTL Directorate of Land and Property and USAID, July 2004.

[21]    Fay, James A. (2003a). “Model of Spills and Fires from LNG and Oil Tankers” Journal of Hazardous Materials, B96-2003, 171-188, 2003. Abstract online here.

[22]    Fay, James A. (2003b). “Spills and Fires from LNG Tankers in Fall River (MA)” Accessed 10 December 2007 at

[23]    Foss, Michelle M. (2003a). “An Introduction to LNG” Center for Energy Economics, The University of Texas at Austin, January 2003.

[24]    Foss, Michelle M. (2003b) “LNG Safety and Security” Center for Energy Economics, The University of Texas at Austin, October 2003.

[25]    Ghazvinian, J. (2007). “Untapped: The Scramble for Africa’s Oil.” Published by Harcourt, Inc.

[26]    Global Witness (2005). “Paying for Protection: The Freeport mine and the Indonesian security forces” July 2005.     

[27]    Government of India. (2005). Economic Survey. Ministry of Finance, 27 February 2005. Accessed 13 December 2007 at

[28]    Government of Trinidad and Tobago (2005). “Report of Energy Subcommittee of ‘Vision 2020’ ”. Accessed 13 December 2007 here.

[29]    Gusmão, Amandio (2006). “An Overview of Timor-Leste’s Resources.” RDTL National Directorate for Oil and Gas.

[30]    Hightower, M. and Luketa-Hanlin, A. (2006a). “Guidance on Safety and Risk Management of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spills Over Water” PowerPoint Presentation, U.S. Department of Energy LNG Forums 2006. Accessed 18 December 2006 here.

[31]    Hightower, M., Gritzo, L., Luketa-Hanlin, A., Covan, J., Tieszen, S., Wellman, G., Irwin, M., Kaneshige, M., Melof, B., Morrow, C., Ragland, D. (2006b). “Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of a Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill Over Water” Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia Report SAND2004-6258. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550. Accessed 12 December 2007 here.

[32]    Hightower, M., Luketa-Hanlin, A., Gritzo, L. and Covan, J. (2006c). “Review of the Independent Risk Assessment of the Proposed Cabrillo Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port Project” Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia Report SAND2005-7339, January 2006. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550. Accessed 12 December 2007 here.

[33]    Hoffman, Nicholas. (2007). Presentation at LNG Roundtable discussion in Dili, 13 April 2007.

[34]    Hove, Anton, Kværner. Personal communication, 2006.

[35]    IMF (2007). “Staff Report for the 2006 Article IV Consultation” IMF Country Report No. 07/79 on Timor-Leste, February 2007. Accessed 12 December 2007 at

[36]    Imle, John F., Jr. (2003). “Timor Leste as a potential LNG exporter—why not?” Presentation to the International Energy and Mineral Resources Conference, March 2003, Dili, Timor-Leste.

[37]    Intec Engineering Pty. Ltd. (2002). “Report for East Timor Pipeline – Feasibility Study” Perth, Australia, June 2002.

[38]    Ismail, N.H. and Stuart, T.R. (2005). “The Train 7 Fire at PETRONAS’ LNG Complex, Bintulu, MalaysiaLNG Journal, July/August 2005. Accessed 13 December 2007 here.

[39]    Jensen, James T. (2006). “LNG—the challenge of including an internationally traded commodity in a North American natural gas forecast” Presentation to the 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference, Washington, D.C., March 2006.

[40]    Judicial System Monitoring Program (2004). “Women in the Formal Justice Sector – Report on the Dili District Court” Also Indonesian. April 2004. Accessed December 2007 here.

[41]    Kernagan, James and Franklin, Toni, ENI (2007). Personal meeting with La’o Hamutuk, as well as briefing on Timor-Leste Local Content and Sustainable Development Briefing at the NGO Forum in Dili, June 2007.

[42]    Koopman, Ronald P. (2002). “LNG Safety” Accessed December 2007 here.

[43]    La’o Hamutuk (2004). “The East Timor - Nigeria Exchange to Study the Environmental and Social Effects of Petroleum Development” Accessed December 2007 here.

[44]    La’o Hamutuk (2005). “Timor-Leste will be one of the most oil-dependent countries in the world” (also Indonesian) La’o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 6, No. 4, November 2005.

[45]    La’o Hamutuk (2006). “The CMATS Treaty”  (also Indonesian) La’o Hamutuk Bulletin Vol. 7, No. 1, April 2006. Accessible at The text of the treaty is available from

[46]    La’o Hamutuk (2007b). “Salva Sunrise. (Tetum)Tempo Semanal, 15 October 2007.

[47]    Lehr, W. and Simecek-Beatty, D. (2004). “Comparison of Hypothetical LNG and Fuel Oil Fires on Water” Report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Response and Restoration, Seattle, WA, 2003, DRAFT. Later version in Journal of Hazardous Materials. v107. 3-9. 2004 here.

[48]    Lewis, Ian (2007). “LNG: The price isn’t rightPetroleum Economist, April 2007.

[49]    LUCON A/S (2005). “Pipeline Crossing of Timor Trench: Review of ‘Timor‑Leste Gas Export Pipeline Feasibility Study’ ” Prepared for The Ministry of Development and Environment Timor-Leste, Rev. 02, 20 January 2005.

[50]    Macdonald, I. and Rowland, C., Eds. (2002). “Tunnel Vision: Women, Mining and Communities” An anthology published by Oxfam Community Aid Abroad, November 2002.

[51]    Marriot, Paul (2006). “Turtle Power Threatens Chevron’s Gorgon Gas Project” Reuters News Service Australia, June 7, 2006. This article describes Chevron’s Final Environmental Impact Statement to respond to submissions to the Western Australia Environmental Review, which is available at

[52]    Mau Bocy, Vicente (2007). “The Economic Impact of Greater Sunrise LNG Pipe Line to Timor LesteSuara Timor Lorosa’e, 22-24 October 2007.

[53]    McKee, Geoffrey (2002). Submission to Joint Standing Committee on Treaties of the Australian Parliament, 26 October 2002. Accessed 13 December 2007 at

[54]    McKee, Geoffrey (2005). “How much is Greater Sunrise really worth?” Online document, available at

[55]    Monteiro, Francisco da Costa, advisor to the President of RDTL. Personal interview, 24 May 2006.

[56]    Munster and Walsh (1980). “Documents on Australian Defence and Foreign Policy, 1968-1975.” Page 200.

[57]    Nicolau, Guteriano and Scheiner, Charles (2005). "Oil in Timor-Leste: A discussion of economic, ecological and moral debt" Published by Oilwatch Network, Ecuador. Accessible in in PDF here or as a web page at

[58]    Northern Territory Department of Primary Industry, Fisheries and Mines (2007). “Gas is The Future – Helium Leads the Way” press release, 24 September 2007. Accessed December 2007 here.

[59]    Northern Territory government (2002). “Chief Minister meets industry representatives in Canberra on Sunrise gas” press release, 22 July 2002.

[60]    Northern Territory Office of Environment and Heritage (2002). “Issues Raised by the Public about the Phillips 10 MTPA LNG Project

[61]    Offshore Environment (2007). Accessed December 2007 at http://www.offshore‑

[62]    Oilwatch (2006). Testimonies given at the International Oilwatch Forum on Petroleum, Human Rights and Integral Reparation (also Indonesian) in Coca, Ecuador, 20-22 October 2006. See

[63]    Peace and Democracy Foundation (2004). “Report About Research on Customary Dispute Resolution and Proposed Mediation Model for the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste”  November 2004.

[64]    Peace Dividend Trust (2005). “Economic Impact of Peacekeeping; Interim Report Phase I” April 2005. (Initially published by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations Best Practices Unit.) Accessed December 2007 here.

[65]    Peru LNG S. R. L. “Proyecto de exportación de GNL” (Spanish) Pampa Melchorita, Peru, report 029-4217 by Golder Associates Peru S.A., July 2003. Accessed 12 December 2007 here.

[66]    Phillips Petroleum Company Australia (2002). “Darwin 10 MTPA LNG Facility Public Environmental Report” Reference 00533-244-562/R841/PER prepared by URS Australia Pty Ltd. March 2002. Accessed December 2007 here.

[67]    Pires, Alfredo (2007). Public meeting with the new Secretary of State for Natural Resources organized by La’o Hamutuk at the NGO Forum, 20 September 2007. See

[68]    Quest Consultants (2001). “Modeling LNG Spills in Boston Harbor” Copyright©2003 Quest Consultants, Inc., 908 2626th

[69]    Raj, P.K., Moussa A.N., Aravamudan, K. (1979) “Experiments Involving Pool and Vapor Fires from Spills of Liquefied Natural Gas on Water.” Arthur D. Little, Cambridge, MA.

[70]    Raj, , Phani K. (2007). “Department of Homeland Security: LNG Tanker Security” Testimony to the U.S. Congressional Committee on Homeland Security, 21 March 2007. Accessed 20 December 2007 at

[71]    RasGas (2005). “Personal Achievement – National SuccessRasGas Magazine #12, July-October 2005, published by RasGas Company Ltd. Accessed December 2007 at

[72]    RDTL (2002). National Development Plan.  Contents, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3.

[73]    RDTL (2005a). Law no. 9/2005 (Petroleum Fund Law), promulgated 3 August 2005. Available at For additional information on Petroleum Fund operations, see

[74]    RDTL (2005b). Law no. 13/2005 (on Petroleum Activities), promulgated 23 August 2005. Available at For additional information on Timor-Leste’s petroleum regime, see

[75]    RDTL (2007). Government Resolution No. 8/2007, including Map of Parque Nacional Konis Santana from ALGIS system.

[76]    RDTL Directorate for Environmental Services (2006a). Draft Pollution Control Law.

[77]    RDTL Directorate for Environmental Services (2006b). Draft Environmental Impact Assessment Law.

[78]    RDTL Directorate for Environmental Services (2007). “National Capacity Self Assessment, Final Report” Also Tetum. Accessed December 2007 here.

[79]    RDTL Ministry of Finance (2007). “Proposal for Domestic Tax Reform” Also Tetum. Note and table for Public Consultations on Tax Reform from the Tax Policy Committee, September 2007. Available, with updates, at

[80]    RDTL Ministry of Finance (2007a). “State Budget for the Transition Period 1 July to December 2007” Accessed December 2007 here.

[81]    RDTL Ministry of Natural Resources, Minerals and Energy Policy (2007). “The future of the TSDA” Also Tetum. Discussion paper for public consultation.

[82]    RDTL Ministry of Natural Resources, Minerals and Energy Policy. Personal interview with Minister Jose Teixeira, advisors and staff, 19 May 2006.

[83]    RDTL Ministry of Natural Resources, Minerals and Energy Policy (2006). “Resettlement Policy Framework For Gas Seep Harvesting Project” August 2006.

[84]    RDTL Ministry of the Interior (2005). “National Disaster Management Plan” and Annexes. Civil Protection Directorate, National Disaster Management Office, October 2005.

[85]    RDTL National Statistics Directorate (2004). “Timor-Leste 2004 Census Distribution of Households” map

[86]    RDTL National Statistics Directorate (2006). "Timor-Leste Overseas Trade Statistics, 2005" Published by National Statistics Directorate, RDTL Ministry of Planning and Finance, March 2006.

[87]    RDTL Office of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers (2007). "IV Constitutional Government Program, 2007-2012" Also Tetum. Accessed at

[88]    RDTL (2006a). “Combating Poverty as a National Cause” March 2006.

[89]    RDTL (2006b). “Sector Investment Program: Private Sector Development” April 2006.

[90]    Rigzone News (2003). “Greater Sunrise Gas Project Gets EIS Approval” published 28 March 2003. Accessed 23 October 2007 at

[91]    Sandbu, Martin E. (2005). “Natural Wealth Accounts: A Proposal for Alleviating the Natural Resource CurseWorld Development, 34(7), 1153–1170. Accessed December 2007 here.

[92]    Santos (2007). Quarterly filings with the Australian Stock Exchange. Accessible at

[93]    Scheiner, Charles (2004a). “Can Timor-Leste Avoid the Resource Curse?” Paper presented to the workshop on Transparency and Accountability in Government, March 2004. Available, with related presentations and documents, at

[94]    Scheiner, Charles (2004b). “The Case for Saving Sunrise” La’o Hamutuk, July 2004. Accessible from

[95]    Sen, Amartya (1999). “Development as Freedom.” New York: Random Books/Anchor House.

[96]    Sinclair Knight Merz (2001). “Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Sunrise Gas Project for Woodside Energy Ltd.” December 2001.

[97]    Snøhvit LNG (2001). “Konsekvensutredning” (Norwegian) [Impact study]. Stavanger, Norway, April 2001.

[98]    Suara Timor Lorosa’e (2007). “Bring Greater Sunrise to Timor-Leste.” Published 17 September 2007.

[99]    Swaine, Aisling (2003). “Traditional Justice and Gender Based Violence” International Rescue Committee, August 2003. Accessed December 2007 here.

[100]    Tempo Semanal (2007). “40,000 Job Opportunities for Timorese.” Published 1 October 2007.

[101]  Timmons, Heather (2004). “Shell’s Top Executive is Forced to Step DownThe New York Times, 4 March 2004.

[102]  Timor Sea Designated Authority (2007). “Expression of Interest called for enhanced oil recovery of Elang-Kakatua-Kakatua North” Press release issued 3 October 2007.

[103]  Trainor, C. R., Santana, F., Rudyanto, Xavier, A. F., Pinto, P. and de Oliveira, G. F. (2007). “Important Bird Areas in Timor-Leste: Key sites for conservation.” Cambridge, U.K.: BirdLife International. Map used with the permission of the Government of Timor-Leste.

[104]  U.S. Energy Information Administration (2003). “The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook” U.S. Department of Energy EIA, December 2003. Accessed 12 December 2007 at

[105]  U.S. Government Accountability Office (2007). “Maritime Security: Public Safety Consequences of a Terrorist Attack on a Tanker Carrying Liquefied Natural Gas Need Clarification” Report GAO-07-316, February 2007. Accessed 20 December 2007 at

[106]  U.S. Minerals Management Service (2004). “Offshore Facilities Decommissioning Costs: Pacific OCS Region” United States Department of the Interior, September 2004.

[107]  UNDP (2007). Human Development Report 2007/8: “Fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world” See or

[108]  UNIFEM (2001). “Gender Fact Sheet No. 4: Women in Business” See also Women’s Business Council of the Philippines website.

[109]  United Nations (2004). Map of Timor-Leste from DPKO Cartographic Section. Accessed 4 January 2007 here.

[110]  UNTAET (2000). Regulation No. 2000/19 on Protected Places 30 June 2000.

[111]  Vallejo Disaster Council (2003). “Liquefied Natural Gas in Vallejo: Health and Safety Issues” LNG Health and Safety Committee of the Disaster Council of the City of Vallejo, CA, January 2003.

[112]  Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights endorsed by the governments of the U.S., U.K., Norway and Netherlands, as well as many oil companies and human rights NGOs. See

[113]  Watson, Alistair, petroleum tax advisor to RDTL. Personal communication, 28 October 2007.

[114]  White, Roger, advisor to RDTL Ministry of Natural Resources. Personal conversation, 18 October 2007.

[115]  White, S., White, N., and Middleton, G. (2006). “Report of Findings on the Proposed Iralalaro Hydro-Electric Power Scheme, Timor Leste” to HABURAS Foundation and Australian Conservation Foundation, January, 2006.

[116]  Whyte, Amanda, Woodside. Personal communication, 25 October 2007.

[117]  Wikipedia, Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (Bleve). Accessed 15 October 2007 at

[118]  Wikipedia, Liquefied Natural Gas. Accessed 15 October 2007 at

[119]  Wikipedia, Watts, Philip. Accessed 19 October 2007 at

[120]  Wilson, Nigel (2007). “Sunrise for Woodside in TimorThe Australian Business 14 February 2007. Accessed 23 October 2007 here.

[121]  Woodside (2002). “Sunrise Update” Sunrise Gas project, June 2002.

[122]  Woodside (2003). “Greater Sunrise LNG Development” Presentation to 8th Asia LNG Markets Conference by Lucio Della Martina, March 2003, Singapore.

[123]  Woodside (2007a). “Greenhouse Policy” handout, April 2007. Document W9000AH3438206 Rev 0. Accessed 12 December 2007 here.

[124]  Woodside (2007b). Quarterly filings with the Australian Stock Exchange. Accessible at

[125]  World Bank Group/ADB (2007). Economic and Social Development Brief, August 2007. Accessed December 2007 here.


Continue to Acknowledgements

Go back to Appendix 7. Glossary

Return to Table of Contents

The Timor-Leste Institute for Development Monitoring and Analysis (La’o Hamutuk)
Institutu Timor-Leste ba Analiza no Monitor ba Dezenvolvimentu
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